1. Philosophy and Christianity: Philosophical essays dedicated to Professor. Dr. Herman Dooyeweerd (Kampen: J.H. Kok and Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1965), p. 11. The original German text is, "Wir wissen heute zu gut, dass alles Philosophieren sich auf dem Hintergrunde einer Kultur abspielt, die wesentlich durch ihre Religion bestimmt ist..."

2. Amsterdam: H. J. Paris, 1935-36.

3. Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1953-58.

4. Franeker: T. Wever, 1949.

5. Zutphen: van den Brink & Co, 1963. This book was later translated into English by John Kraay and edited by Mark Vander Vennen and Bernard Zylstra. The title of the English translation is Roots of Western Culture: Pagan, Secular, and Christian Options, (Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation, 1979).

6. This idea is held in Vernieuwing en Bezinning.

7. The dialectical conflicts are the contradictory tensions between the two opposite poles of a religious ground motive. See chapter 3 and 4 for more details.

8. Amsterdam: Wed. G. Van Soest, 1917.

9. The Anti-Revolutionary Party was the first Dutch Christian Protestant reformed party founded by Abraham Kuyper in 1879. For more details, see RWC, p. 68.

10. J. Stellingwerff, D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978): reformator der wijsbegeerte [D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978): reformer of philosophy] (Baarn: Ten Have, 1992), p. 79.

11. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. v. and NC I, p. v.

12. Dooyeweerd called them Gegenstand, a German word for object. Chapter 2 discusses this in detail.

13. H.G. Geertsema, Kan een Wetenschap(per) zich bekeren? Het perspectief voor wetenschap en samenleving in het denken van Jürgen Habermas en Herman Dooyeweerd [Can a science(scholar) be converted? The perspective for science and society in the thought of Jürgen Habermas en Herman Dooyeweerd], (Amsterdam: VU, 1989), p. 21.

14. Dooyeweerd, NC I, pp. 3-4.

15. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 11. "Alle zin is uit, door en tot een oorsprong."

16. J. van der Hoeven, "Matters of mission and transmission: On the Progress of Ecumenical-Reformational Thought", PR 52 (1987), pp. 137-138.

17. L. Kalsbeek, Contours of a Christian philosophy: An Introduction to Herman Dooyeweerd's thought, Bernard and Josina Zylstra, eds. (Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation, 1975), p. 311. Its original Dutch edition is De Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee: Proeve van een christelijke filosofie, (Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn, 1970). Cf. R. van Woudenberg, Gelovend denken: Inleiding tot een christelijke filosofie [Believing thinking: Introduction to a Christian philosophy], (Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn, 1992), pp. 208-210.

18. See for detail pp. 5-6.

19. Dooyeweerd, NC I, pp. 68ff.

20. Kalsbeek, Contours, p. 35. This theme will be elaborated in chapter 2 where we will discuss Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique of theoretical thought.

21. C.A. Van Peursen, "Enkele Critische Vragen in Margine bij `A New Critique of Theoretical Thought'" [A few critical questions in the margin with respect to `A New Critique of Theoretical Thought'], PR 24 (1959), p. 160.

22. Dooyeweerd, NC I, pp. 507-508. The word `boundary' is not to be conceived as a spacial boundary because space itself belongs to the created world. `Boundary' is here thus a metaphorical term. See, Van Woudenberg, Gelovend Denken, p. 43.

23. Kalsbeek, De Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee, p. 71.

24. Geertsema, Kan een Wetenschap(per), p. 27.

25. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 29.

26. Kalsbeek, Contours, pp. 156-157.

27. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 28. M.D. Stafleu, however, criticizes this view by saying that "because there are no mathematically qualified structures of individuality, only modal time order is to be found in the mathematical modal aspects, not subjective duration." See his article, "Analysis of Time in Modern Physics", PR 35 (1970), p. 3.

28. J. Van der Hoeven, "In memory of Herman Dooyeweerd. Meaning, Time and Law", PR 43 (1978), p. 139.

29. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 30.

30. Dooyeweerd illustrates this with the image of the light of the sun refracted through a prism into the seven colours of the spectrum. See, Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 66 and NC I, pp. 101-102.

31. Kalsbeek, Contours, pp. 154-156.

32. Whereas `I', `Ego', `concentration point', and `selfhood' are formal terms, `heart' and `soul' are more religious ones.

33. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 31. That the human heart is supratemporal does not mean, however, that it is eternal because only God the Creator is eternal.

34. Dooyeweerd, NC II, pp. 203-204.

35. Ibid., p. 196. Cf. Dooyeweerd, In the Twilight of Western Thought: Studies in the Pretended Autonomy of Philosophical Thought, (Nutley, New Jersey: The Craig Press, 1980), p. 90.

36. Ibid., p. 195. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 91.

37. Ibid., pp. 197-198.

38. Ibid., p. 198. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, pp. 91-92.

39. Ibid., p. 196.

40. Dooyeweerd also mentioned a distinction between culture and civilization, meant as the difference between inner and outward culture (see NC II, p. 199). But for him this distinction is ambiguous and so cannot be generally acknowledged because the word civilization itself can be understood in this twofold sense.

41. Dooyeweerd uses "historical development" and "cultural development" as synonyms.

42. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 29. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 99.

43. Kalsbeek, Contours, p. 312.

44. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 190 (italics mine).

45. Ibid., p. 238.

46. H.G. Geertsema, "Transcendentale Openheid: Over het zinkarakter van de werkelijkheid in de wijsbegeerte van H. Dooyeweerd" [Transcendental openness: Concerning the meaning-character of reality in the philosophy of H. Dooyeweerd], PR 35 (1970), p. 137.

47. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 294. The disclosing process of individuality structures will be explained in section (4) where we will deal with its normative principles.

48. Section 3 deals with this idea in detail.

49. Ibid., p. 302 (italics mine).

50. Ibid., pp. 319ff.

51. We will see this in chapter 4.

52. Ibid., p. 323.

53. Ibid., p. 322.

54. Ibid., p. 323.

55. Dooyeweerd, VB, p. 68,

56. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 242 (italics mine). Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 101.

57. Ibid., pp. 259-260. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 102.

58. Dooyeweerd, NC III, p. 594.

59. Dooyeweerd, NC II, pp. 261-262.

60. Ibid. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, pp. 104-105.

61. Ibid., p. 261.

62. Dooyeweerd, NC III, p. 595.

63. Dooyeweerd, NC II, pp. 259-262, 273-276.

64. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 106.

65. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 79.

66. Dooyeweerd, NC II, pp. 363-364.

67. This issue is fully dealt with later in section 4.

68. That is perhaps why J.P.A. Mekkes has regarded the idea of the opening process as an essential part of reformational philosophy. See Van Woudenberg, Gelovend, p. 181.

69. Jacob Klapwijk, "On Worldviews and Philosophy", Paul A. Marshall, Sander Griffioen, Richard J. Mouw, eds. Stained Glass: Worldviews and Social Science, (Lanham: University Press of America, 1989) p. 52. Abraham Kuyper, Lectures on Calvinism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1931). Actually, Dooyeweerd's three transcendental ground ideas are also similar to what Kuyper mentioned in his lectures as "the three fundamental relations of all human life: viz., (1) our relation to God, (2) our relation to man, and (3) our relation to the world." (see ibid., p. 19.) C.T. McIntire in his article "Dooyeweerd's Philosophy of History" in The Legacy of Herman Dooyeweerd, pp. 109-110, argues that Dooyeweerd derived his idea of religious ground motives from his analysis of Aristotle, Thomas, and Kant. But this view is rectified by Van der Hoeven who said that "it is more likely that Dooyeweerd owed the `idea' to his reading of Kuyper." See J. van der Hoeven, "Matters of Mission and Transmission", p. 201.

70. A. Wolters, "On The Idea of Worldview and Its Relation to Philosophy" in Stained Glass, p. 23. Cf. Dooyeweerd, NC I, pp. 128, 156, 158, 165.

71. Here I include, for the sake of convenience, the Roman-Catholic motive.

72. Comprehensive discussion on this subject is made in the following chapter.

73. ARS 1 (1924-25), pp. 71-79. Further discussion on this will follow in chapter 3.

74. ARS 2 (1926), pp. 425-427. Further discussion on this will follow in chapter 3.

75. H. Dooyeweerd, De Beteekenis der Wetsidee voor Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsphilosophie [The significance of the law-idea for jurisprudence and philosophy of law] (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1926), pp. 6ff, p. 61.

76. For further discussion on this, see the following chapter.

77. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 472. "de strijd tusschen het Rijk Gods en het Rijk der Duisternis in den wortel en in den tijdelijken samenhang in de zinverscheidenheid van onzen kosmos."

78. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 507.

79. H. Dooyeweerd, "De transcendentale critiek van het wijsgerig denken: Een bijdrage tot overwinning van het wetenschappelijk exclusivisme der richtingen" [The transcendental critique of philosophical thought: A contribution to the overcoming of the scientific exclusivism of directions], Synthese IV, (Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1939), p. 317. This article was written at the invitation of the editors of Synthese, following upon Dooyeweerd's 1938 article in Philosophia Reformata.

80. Ibid., p. 320.

81. Further discussion on this will follow later in chapter 3.

82. PR 6 (1941), pp. 161-179.

83. It is interesting to notice that Dooyeweerd discovered the religious ground motive of ancient Greek philosophy last. He traced it from the modern age back to the ancient period, not the other way around.

84. Ibid., p. 161, footnote 1.

85. Cf. John Kraay, "Successive Conceptions in the Development of the Christian Philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd (I)" PR 44 (1979), p. 140. In this article, (also in PR 45, pp. 1-46) Kraay typifies the successive conceptions in the development of Dooyeweerd's philosophy in three steps: the organon conception, the Archimedean conception, and the ground-motive conception.

86. This was the first book of the trilogy which Dooyeweerd planned to publish. The other two books, however, were not published. The English translation of the whole work is forthcoming.

87. I, p. 472.

88. See for instance, pp. 320-321.

89. PR 7 (1942), pp. 56-57.

90. "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en het Thomistisch substantiebegrip: Een critisch onderzoek naar de grondslagen der Thomistische zijnsleer" [The idea of individuality-structure and the Thomistic concept of substance: a critical investigation into the foundation of the Thomistic theory of being] PR 8 (1943), pp. 68, 88f.

91. In this book, Dooyeweerd also uses the term "principle" besides that of "motive". See for example, p. 29.

92. "De verhouding tussen wijsbegeerte and theologie en de strijd der faculteiten" [The relationship between philosophy and theology and the struggle of the faculties] PR 23 (1958), p. 4. See also H. Dooyeweerd, "Van Peursen's critische vragen bij `A New Critique of Theoretical Thought' [Van Peursen's critical questions about `A New Critique of Theoretical Thought']", PR 25 (1960), pp. 103-104, 142-150.

93. Geertsema, "Transcendentale Openheid", pp. 50-51.

94. Ibid., p. 51.

95. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 1.

96. John Kraay, Translator's preface in Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. ix.

97. These articles are, therefore, not meant for academic people alone, but rather for the nonacademic community at large.

98. Ibid. These articles were later published in a book, entitled, Vernieuwing en Bezinning.

99. Ibid., p. 6.

100. Ibid., p. 15.

101. Ibid., p. 9.

102. The theoretical antithesis, on the other hand, can search for a higher synthesis of relative opposites.

103. Geertsema, "Transcendentale Openheid", p. 51.

104. H.E.S. Woldring/D.Th. Kuiper, Reformatorische Maatschappijkritiek: Ontwikkelingen op het gebied van sociale filosofie en sociologie in de kring van het Nederlandse protestantisme van de 19e eeuw tot heden [Reformational critique of society: Developments in the area of social philosophy and sociology in the circle of Dutch protestantism of the 19th century up to the present], (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1980), p. 102.

105. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 61.

106. Kalsbeek, Contours, p. 64.

107. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 67.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., p. 50.

110. Dooyeweerd, VB, p. 58. Recited from Kalsbeek, Contours, p. 65.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., p. 139.

113. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 175.

114. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 336. Thus Dooyeweerd admitted that humanism also had its own cultural calling.

115. Ibid., p. 364. Kalsbeek illustrates this important point with many historical examples. See Kalsbeek, Contours, pp. 143-149.

116. Dooyeweerd, NC I, pp. 175-176. E. Schuurman feels that it is necessary to add this "Re-creation" motive because "the second coming of Christ ought to have, and mostly has, an important place in Christian life, and because this expectation is of importance for a Christian view on culture and its development." See his article, "A Confrontation with Technicism as the Spiritual Climate of the West", Westminster Theological Journal 58 (1996), p. 77.

117. Ibid.

118. Geertsema, "Transcendentale Openheid", pp. 140-141. Calvin Seerveld agrees with this view. See his article, "Dooyeweerd's idea of `Historical Development': Christian respect for cultural diversity", Westminster Theological Journal 58 (1996), p. 46.

119. Geertsema, "Transcendentale Openheid", p. 145.

120. Ibid., p. 145. Cf. C. Seerveld, "Dooyeweerd's Idea of `Historical Development'", p. 51. Seerveld distinguishes the two as "history at bottom" (the eschatological struggle between civitas dei and civitas mundi) and "history as such" (formative control).

121. Ibid., p. 146.

122. Ibid.

123. S. Griffioen, "De betekenis van Dooyeweerds ontwikkelingsidee [The significance of Dooyeweerd's idea of development]", PR, 51 (1986), p. 108.

124. Ibid., pp. 93-94. C. Seerveld is also of the same opinion. See his article, "Dooyeweerd's idea of `Historical Development'", pp. 46-49.

125. Ibid., p. 108.

126. N. Wolterstorff, Until Justice and Peace embrace, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983), pp. 53-59.

127. Wolterstorff, Justice and Peace, p. 58.

128. Ibid., p. 59.

129. C.T. McIntire, "Dooyeweerd's philosophy of history", The Legacy of Herman Dooyeweerd, (Lanham: UPA, 1985), pp. 81-117. Van der Hoeven, "Matters", pp. 182-207.

130. Van der Hoeven, "Matters", p. 196.

131. McIntire, Legacy, pp. 91-96. He tries to demonstrate this argument with five `indications' in Dooyeweerd's own thought: (1) the ambiguous presence of `cultural development' within his modal theory, (2) the referents of his modal analogies, (3) his inability to locate historically qualified phenomena matched by his move to observe instead how things come into existence, (4) his linkage of historical time to past, present, and future, and (5) his failure to comprehend the historical character of non-human phenomena apart from human influence. See ibid., pp. 89-96. C. Seerveld agrees. See his article, "Dooyeweerd's idea of `Historical Development'", pp. 50-51.

132. Van der Hoeven, "Matters of mission and transmission", p. 197.

133. Ibid., p. 198.

134. Ibid., p. 200.

135. In addition, I think McIntire has given a good summary when he says, "Dooyeweerd interpreted history to be development motivated essentially by religion. He conjoined religion and development with the result that he understood the course of history to be one of multiple conflict. History was not optimistic progress, nor pessimistic decline, but a dialectical religious struggle which yielded a powerful developmental struggle for the unfolding of creation." See McIntire, Legacy, p. 110. McIntire then mentions three kinds of struggle in Dooyeweerd's philosophy: (1) in relation to religion, the conflict between civitas Dei and civitas terrena and the dialectical conflict within each religious ground motive other than the integral Christian one, (2) in relation to development, the struggle between advocates of each social sphere and other spheres for the leadership of the whole differentiation and that between conservative party and progressive ones, and (3) the struggle for the normative expression of the principles of the creational order in each aspect of human experience. Van der Hoeven complements McIntire by saying that "creation itself is `of the beginning' and essentially Spiritual, and therefore throughout its history `religiously motivated'". See Van der Hoeven, "Matters of mission and transmission", p. 201.

136. Vollenhoven states this idea in his Isagoogè Philosophiae [Introduction to philosophy], (Amsterdam: Filosofisch Instituut Vrije Univsersiteit, 1967), pp. 135-138.

137. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 5.

138. Ibid., p. 6.

139. See pp. 2-3.

140. This work consists of three books. Dooyeweerd had already finished his first manuscript in 1929, but he wanted to work it out and thereby extensively enlarged it.

141. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 490 and NC I, p. 522.

142. Van Eikema Hommes rejects Dooyeweerd's use of the terms `the first way' and `the second way' because in the first magnum opus Dooyeweerd does not yet analyze the theoretical attitude of thought itself. See H. van Eikema Hommes, Inleiding tot de Wijsbegeerte van Herman Dooyeweerd [Introduction to the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd], ('s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982), p. 16.

143. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 5.

144. H.G. Geertsema, "The inner reformation of philosophy and science and the dialogue of Christian faith with a secular culture: a critical assessment of Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique of theoretical thought", Christian Philosophy at the Close of the Twentieth Century: Assessment and Perspective, edited by S. Griffioen and B. M. Balk (Kampen: Kok, 1995), pp. 13-14.

145. Dooyeweerd, WdW II, deel I, pp. 1-356.

146. Dooyeweerd, De Beteekenis der Wetsidee, p. 65.

147. Dooyeweerd, WdW l, p. 6.

148. Ibid., p. 7.

149. Ibid.

150. Ibid., p. 8 and Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 7.

151. Dooyeweerd, WdW l, p. 8.

152. Ibid., p. 14.

153. Ibid., pp. 14-15.

154. Ibid., p. 19.

155. Ibid.

156. Actually Stoker's criticism had been already made before Dooyeweerd's trilogy was published.

157. Stoker, Die Nuwere Wijsbegeerte aan die Vrije Universiteit [The new philosophy at the Free University], (Potchefstroom: Die Weste-drukkery, 1933) p. 58, pp. 62ff. Die Wysbegeerte van die Skeppingsidee [The philosophy of the idea of creation], (Pretoria: J.H. De Bussy, 1933) pp. 22-27. The basic reason why Stoker developed his idea of creation was because he found that it can be a more comprehensive idea encompassing both the philosophy of revelation of H. Bavinck and that of the cosmonomic idea of Dooyeweerd. Later, the famous Dutch philosopher and scientist Philip Kohnstamm joined this opinion in his essay in Paedagogiek, Personalisme en Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee: Feestbundel Dr. Jan Waterink [Pedagogy, personalism and philosophy of the cosmonomic idea: festschrift for Dr. Jan Waterink], (Amsterdam, 1951).

158. Stoker, Skeppingsidee, p. 43. Stoker misunderstood the Archimedean point of Dooyeweerd's philosophy as the idea of the law (see ibid., p. 23) but Dooyeweerd clearly states that it is in the new root of mankind in Christ, in which by regeneration Christians have part in their reborn selfhood (see WdW I, p. 64).

159. WdW I, pp. 58-61 and NC I, pp. 94-96.

160. Dooyeweerd added this word "transcendental" later in his New Critique.

161. This third point is replaced in the New Critique by explaining the meaning of the term "cosmonomic Idea" to remove any misunderstanding. Namely, it means not only the nomos-side of the cosmos but also the subject-side of the cosmos.

162. Stoker, Skeppingsidee, p. 25.

163. Stoker, Die Nuwere Wijsbegeerte, p. 50. For Dooyeweerd's response, see WdW I, p. 62 and NC I, p. 96.

164. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 62 and NC I, pp. 96-97.

165. Ibid.

166. Stoker, Die Nuwere Wysbegeerte, pp. 54-57. The question itself is formulated by Dooyeweerd in NC I, pp. 105-106.

167. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 106.

168. Stoker, Die Nuwere Wysbegeerte, pp. 40ff.

169. Dooyeweerd, WdW III, pp. 42-53 and NC II, p. 32 and III, pp. 61-76. Cf. D.J. Malan's dissertation, 'n Kritiese Studie van die Wysbegeerte van H.G. Stoker vanuit die Standpunt van H. Dooyeweerd [A critical study of the philosophy of H.G. Stoker from the standpoint of H. Dooyeweerd], (Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn, 1968).

170. H.G. Stoker, "Moet ons die sedelike tot 'n funksie beperk? [Must we limit morality to a function?]" in Koers 24 (1956), pp. 38-39.

171. The only discussion of Stoker on the issue of the heart was his article, "Moet ons die sedelike tot 'n funksie beperk? in Koers 24 (1956), pp. 31-43, which he wrote in order to respond to J.A.L. Taljaard who had published a critical article, "Die mens, die liefde en die sedelike [Man, love and morality]" in Koers 23 (1956), pp. 295-318 after the appearance of Stoker's work, Die Grond van die Sedelike [The ground of morality] (Stellenbosch: Pro Ecclesia-Drukkery, 1941). Stoker rejected Dooyeweerd's distinction between "centre" (the heart) and "function" (the modalities). He had to reject this, since he divided the modal functions themselves into body, soul and spirit.

172. H. Robbers, "Christelijke philosophie in Katholieke en Calvinistische opvatting" [Christian philosophy in Catholic and Calvinistic view] in Studiën. Tijdschrift voor godsdienst, wetenschap en letteren, 67 (1935), p. 85.

173. Ibid., p. 95.

174. "Het dilemma voor het Christelijk wijsgeerig denken en het critisch karakter van de wijsbegeerte der wetsidee" [The dilemma for Christian philosophical thought and the critical character of the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea]. See especially pp. 14-16.

175. Ibid., p. 3, 4.

176. Ibid., p. 5.

177. Ibid., p. 15.

178. Ibid., p. 16.

179. J.C. Franken, Themis, 99 ('s-Gravenhage: Gebr. Belinfante N.V., 1938), p. 85.

180. Ibid., p. 87.

181. Ibid.

182. This article was published both in PR in 1938 and in Vox Theologica in 1939.

183. Dooyeweerd, "De niet-theoretische vooroordelen in de wetenschap: critiek op een oncritische critiek", PR 3 (1938), p. 195.

184. Ibid., pp. 195-196.

185. Ibid., p. 201.

186. Synthese, IV, pp. 314-339. Cf. chapter 1, footnote 66.

187. Ibid., pp. 317-318.

188. Ibid., p. 326.

189. Ibid., p. 333.

190. Ibid., p. 334.

191. Ibid., pp. 334-335.

192. PR 6 (1941), pp. 1-20. This paper was delivered at the annual meeting of the Society for Calvinistic Philosophy, Amsterdam, January 2, 1941. The "three steps" will be explained in detail in the following section.

193. Evangelical Quarterly, XIX (1947), pp. 42-51. This was his first article written in English.

194. One year later, he delivered a lecture at the Xme Congrès International de Philosophie under the same title, i.e., "Introduction à une critique transcendentale de la pensée philosophique." Mélanges Philosophiques, Bibliothèque du Xme Congrès International de Philosophie, Vol. II (Amsterdam: L.J. Veen, S.A., 1948), pp. 70-82. Actually Dooyeweerd had already given this lecture right after the Second World War to French students in Amsterdam. A Dutch translation from the French is found in M.E. Verburg, Herman Dooyeweerd: Grenzen van het theoretisch denken [Herman Dooyeweerd: Boundaries of theoretical thought], (Baarn: Ambo, 1986), pp. 110-122.

195. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948.

196. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 34.

197. Ibid., p. 36.

198. Ibid., pp. 36-37.

199. Ibid., p. 37.

200. Ibid., p. 35.

201. Dooyeweerd also mentioned another kind of antithetic relation, viz. that between the opposed aspect and the remaining aspects. See ibid., pp. 39-40.

202. Ibid.

203. Ibid., p. 41. A slightly different formulation is found in Dooyeweerd, In the Twilight of Western Thought: Studies in the Pretended Autonomy of Philosophical Thought, (Nutley, New Jersey: The Craig Press, 1980), p. 12: "What is the continuous bond of coherence between the logical aspect and the non-logical aspects of our experience from which these aspects are abstracted in the theoretical attitude? And, how is the mutual relation between these aspects to be conceived?"

204. Ibid.

205. Ibid., p. 42.

206. Ibid.

207. Ibid., p. 43. See for an example, ibid., p. 44.

208. Ibid., p. 43.

209. Ibid., p. 45. A slight different formulation is found in Twilight, p. 19: "What is the central reference-point in our consciousness from which this theoretical synthesis can start?"

210. Ibid.

211. Ibid., p. 46.

212. Ibid., p. 52. A slightly different formulation is found in Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 25: "How is the concentric direction of theoretical thought upon the ego possible, and whence does it originate?"

213. Ed. John T. McNeill, Trans. Ford Lewis Battles, (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1960), Bk I, pp. 37-38.

214. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 55.

215. Ibid.

216. Ibid., p. 57.

217. Ibid., p. 58.

218. Ibid., p. 59.

219. Ibid., p. 60.

220. Dooyeweerd himself took initiative to have a dialogue with B.J.H. Ovink who was a retired professor of philosophy in Utrecht, by reviewing Ovink's book Philosophie und Sophistik [Philosophy and sophistry] in the Gereformeerd Theologisch Tijdschrift [Reformed theological periodical] 42 (1941) under the title, "Een tweegesprek met Prof. Ovink over dogmatische en critische wijsbegeerte" [A dialogue with prof. Ovink concerning dogmatic and critical philosophy]. But Ovink did not respond to this review. See M.E. Verburg, Herman Dooyeweerd: Leven en werk van een Nederlands christen-wijsgeer [Herman Dooyeweerd: the life and work of a Dutch christian-philosopher], (Baarn: Ten Have, 1989), pp. 284-286 and Grenzen, p. 46. Remarkably, a humanist philosopher prof. mr. G.E. Langemeijer praised Dooyeweerd as the most original philosopher in the Netherlands in the protestant daily newspaper Trouw [Trust] on October 6, 1964 in commemoration of the 70th birthday of Dooyeweerd. See Verburg, Grenzen, p. 47.

221. M.F.J. Marlet judges Dooyeweerd's transcendental critique very favourably in his dissertation Grundlinien der kalvinistischen "Philosophie der Gesetzesidee" als christlicher Transzendentalphilosophie [Basic outlines of the Calvinistic "philosophy of the cosmonomic idea" as Christian transcendental philosophy] (München: Karl Zink Verlag, 1954). Marlet says that Dooyeweerd's philosophy of the cosmonomic idea as a Christian transcendental philosophy can be regarded as Philosophia in Ecclesia recepta ac agnita, thus, a philosophy which is in accordance with the Roman Catholic faith. The next chapter discusses this point further.

222. 14 (1959-1960), pp. 63-68.

223. Van Peursen, "Enkele Critische Vragen in Margine bij `A New Critique of Theoretical Thought'" PR 24 (1959), pp. 160-168.

224. Dooyeweerd, "Van Peursen's Critische Vragen bij `A New Critique of Theoretical Thought'" PR 25(1960), pp. 97-150.

225. C.A. Van Peursen, "Antwoord aan Dooyeweerd [Response to Dooyeweerd]" PR 26 (1961), pp. 189-200.

226. Van Peursen, Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift, p. 64.

227. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 73. In his other book, TWT, Dooyeweerd calls this state of affairs "the structural data of our temporal horizon of experience and of the theoretical attitude of thinking" (p. 53).

228. Ibid., p. 553.

229. J. Klapwijk, ed al. Bringing into Captivity Every Thought: Capita Selecta in the History of Christian Evaluation of Non-Christian philosophy, (Lanham: University Press of America, 1991), p. 182.

230. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 51, footnote 3.

231. Dooyeweerd, "Van Peursen's Critische Vragen," pp. 118, 122-124.

232. M.E. Verburg also defends Dooyeweerd's position in his dissertation by criticizing the views of A.M. Wolters and C.G. Seerveld who are of a similar opinion with Van Peursen. Verburg, Dooyeweerd, pp. 80-82. See for the arguments of Wolters and Seerveld, Legacy, pp. 14, 57-59, 74 note 4. J.D. Dengerink also does not deny that there are some similarities between the two philosophers but simultaneously puts a strong emphasis on the fundamental difference between them. See J.D. Dengerink, De zin van de werkelijkheid [The meaning of reality] (Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 1986), pp. 207ff.

233. Dooyeweerd, "Van Peursen's Critische Vragen," p. 137. Dooyeweerd himself is not satisfied with the term itself because it can be confusing and misleading. Thus he is of the opinion that it can be replaced by another term, if necessary.

234. Ibid., pp. 139-140.

235. Ibid., p. 141.

236. Ibid., p. 128.

237. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 114. Italics mine.

238. Dooyeweerd, "Van Peursen's critische vragen," p. 147.

239. Ibid., p. 148.

240. Ibid., pp. 148-149.

241. Ibid., p. 150.

242. Van Peursen, "Antwoord aan Dooyeweerd," pp. 189-200.

243. C. Van Til, "Response", Jerusalem and Athens: Critical Discussions on the Philosophy and Apologetic of Cornelius Van Til, edited by E.R. Geehan, (Netley: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1971), p. 99.

244. Very similar criticism was made by A.L. Conradie in her book, The Neo-Calvinistic Concept of Philosophy: A Study in the Problem of Philosophic Communication, (Natal: the University Press, 1960), p. 149.

245. Ibid., p. 108.

246. Dooyeweerd, "Cornelius van Til and the transcendental critique of theoretical thought", Jerusalem and Athens, pp, 74, 79.

247. Ibid., p. 80.

248. Ibid.

249. Ibid., pp. 80-81.

250. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 69.

251. See his article, "Communicatie als probleem. Een kritische vergelijking van enkele typen van wijsgerige apologetiek [Communication as problem. A critical comparison of some types of philosophical apologetic]," Radix, 13e jrg. No. 1. (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1988), p. 135.

252. H.G. Geertsema, "Dooyeweerd's Transcendental Critique: Transforming it Hermeneutically", unpublished article, pp. 14-15.

253. Griffioen, "Communicatie als probleem", pp. 133-134.

254. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 37. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 56.

255. Ibid., p. 527.

256. For further explanation on the distinction between structure and direction, see Albert M. Wolters, Creation Regained. Biblical Basics for a reformational Worldview, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985).

257. Dooyeweerd, "De Transcendentale Critiek van het Wijsgeerig Denken," p. 18.

258. H. Dooyeweerd, "Grondthema's van 't Wijsgeerig denken van 't Avondland" [Basic themes of the philosophical thought of the West], PR 6 (1941), pp. 172-173.

259. This point will be dealt with in detail in the following chapter.

260. See for instance, V. Brümmer, "The Dilemma of a Christian Philosophy" in Philosophy and Christianity, pp. 166-177 and H. van Riessen, Wijsbegeerte [Philosophy], (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1970), pp. 124ff. Brümmer, however, understands Dooyeweerd's intention at least by distinguishing "description" and "evaluation". See his article, "The Dilemma of a Christian Philosophy," pp. 175-176.

261. Conradie, The Neo-Calvinistic Concept of Philosophy, p. 152.

262. Ibid., p. 154.

263. V. Brümmer, Transcendental Criticism and Christian Philosophy: A Presentation and Evaluation of Herman Dooyeweerd's "Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea" (Franeker: T. Wever, 1961), pp. 154-155.

264. Van Riessen, Wijsbegeerte, p. 118.

265. D.F.M Strauss, Begrip en Idee [Concept and idea], (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1973), pp. 89ff and "An Analysis of the Structure of Analysis" PR 49 (1984), pp. 35-56, H. Hart, "Dooyeweerd's Gegenstand Theory of Theory" in Legacy, pp. 143-166, and Geertsema, "The inner reformation of philosophy and science," p. 8.

266. Van Riessen, Wijsbegeerte, p. 119.

267. Ibid., p. 98.

268. Geertsema, "The inner reformation of philosophy and science," p. 20.

269. D.H.Th. Vollenhoven, Problemen van de tijd in onze kring [Problems of time in our circle], an address held on March 29, 1968 for the circle Amsterdam of the Society for Calvinistic Philosophy. p. 4.

270. Van Riessen, Wijsbegeerte, pp. 122-123.

271. Geertsema, "Dooyeweerd's Transcendental Critique: Transforming it Hermeneutically", p. 15.

272. J. Hoogland, "De Uitdrukkingskracht van de Transcendentale Denkkritiek" [The expressive power of the transcendental critique of thought], PR 59 (1994), pp. 114-135.

273. H. Geertsema, "Christian Philosophy: Transformation or Inner Reformation," PR 52 (1987), p. 160.

274. Hoogland, "De Uitdrukkingskracht," p. 135.

275. We will discuss this issue at chapter 4 in detail.

276. We will discuss this issue at chapter 5 in detail.

277. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 156.

278. Ibid., p. 61. The idea of antithesis already appeared in the thought of Groen van Prinsterer as an opposition of principles, of life-views between the Christian, antirevolutionary vision and the Enlightenment. Kuyper also emphasized the idea of antithesis as the absolute opposition between Christian and pagan principles. In line with his two predecessors, Dooyeweerd critically develops this idea within his own philosophical system.

279. H. Dooyeweerd, "Het Wijsgeerig Tweegesprek tusschen de Thomistische Philosophie en de Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee [The philosophical dialogue between Thomistic philosophy and the philosophy of the law-idea]" PR 13 (1948), p. 31. Translations are from Brümmer's article, "The Dilemma of a Christian Philosophy," p. 167.

280. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, pp. 144-152 en 474-487. Here, the `form-matter' in Aristotle's philosophy is mentioned (p. 146) but not yet explained as the religious ground motive of the whole of Greek philosophy.

281. The initial conflict was between the anthropological view of Vollenhoven and that of professor V.H. Hepp.

282. Verburg, Dooyeweerd, pp. 202-228; 279-283; J. Stellingwerff, De Vrije Universiteit na Kuyper: de VU van 1905 tot 1955, een halve eeuw geestesgeschiedenis van een civitas academica [The Free University after Kuyper: from 1905 to 1955, a half-century intellectual history of an academic kingdom], (Kampen: Kok, 1987), pp. 185-220; 253-268; D.H.Th. Vollenhoven, pp. 129-181. V.H. Hepp published a series of brochures under the title, Dreigende deformatie [Threatening deformation] (Kampen: Kok, 1936-1937) in critique of Dooyeweerd's view. For Dooyeweerd's defence, see TWT, pp. 157-195.

283. This part was already published in PR 6 (1941), pp. 161-179.

284. Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 9.

285. Ibid., p. 23 and NC I, p. 62. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 39.

286. Ibid.

287. Ibid., p. 29 and NC I, p. 62.

288. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 40.

289. Ibid.

290. Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 10.

291. Ibid., pp. 10-11.

292. Ibid., pp. 27-28.

293. Ibid., p. 25.

294. Ibid., p. 70.

295. What Dooyeweerd mentions is only Anaximander's view that man has no constant form-nature but comes from other life-forms. See ibid., p. 68.

296. Ibid., pp. 79-80. But from his transcendental philosophical perspective, Dooyeweerd criticizes Parmenides as not having taken the "theoretical gegenstand-relation" into consideration. See ibid., p. 133. A.P. Bos also rightly points out that Parmenides made the error of metabasis eis allo genos (the unlawful transition from a certain area of reality to another). In other words, `Being' exists as the content of human abstract thinking, but not in itself separately from all the existing things beyond the reality of human experience. Plato's theory of Ideas is criticized as falling into the same error. See A.P. Bos, "Dooyeweerd en de wijsbegeerte van de oudheid [Dooyeweerd and ancient philosophy]," in HD, p. 217. See also idem, Geboeid door Plato [Captivated by Plato] (Kampen: Kok, 1996).

297. Ibid., pp. 85-87.

298. Ibid., pp. 93-94, 108.

299. One possible problem at this point is that Dooyeweerd's explanation of the form motive as an absolutization of the cultural aspect does not seem to fit here because Pythagoras absolutized the numerical aspect instead of the cultural one.

300. Ibid., pp. 103-107.

301. Ibid., p. 155.

302. Ibid., p. 247.

303. Dooyeweerd, Transcendental Problems, pp. 65-66.

304. Dooyeweerd, RS, pp. 113, 203, 418.

305. Dooyeweerd, Transcendental Problems, p. 66. Dooyeweerd thought that no other thinker before Plato had wrestled so intensively with the dialectical tension of the religious ground motive of Greek philosophy. Thus he compared Plato to I. Kant in the process of the development of the dialectical ground motive of modern humanistic philosophy. See Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 177.

306. Dooyeweerd, Transcendental Problems, p. 66.

307. Ibid., pp. 66-67.

308. Later in NC, though, Dooyeweerd briefly mentions the influence of the dialectical form-matter motive on the Greek philosophical conceptions of time, especially in the philosophy of Aristotle and Anaximander. See NC I, pp. 25-26.

309. Dooyeweerd, RS, pp. 146, 281-282, 292.

310. Ibid., p. 172.

311. Ibid., p. 138.

312. Ibid., p. 176.

313. A.P. Bos, "Het Grondmotief van de Griekse Cultuur en het Titanische Zin-perspectief [The ground motive of Greek culture and the Titanic perspective on the meaning of reality]", PR 54 (1986) p. 117-137; English translation published separately in Tydskrif vir Christelijke Wetenskap [Periodical for Christian science] 24 (1988) pp. 94-123. References will be to the Dutch version but translation follows the English version. See also his recent article, "Dooyeweerd en de wijsbegeerte van de oudheid."

314. A.P. Bos, "Oude en nieuwe discussies over de waarde van het Platonisme [Old and new discussions on the value of Platonism]", PR 44 (1979), pp. 33-38.

315. D.T. Runia, "Dooyeweerd, Bos and the grondmotief of Greek culture", PR 54 (1989), pp. 160-161. A.P. Bos, "Het Grondmotief van de Griekse Cultuur en het Titanische Zin-perspectief", p. 119 and "Dooyeweerd en de wijsbegeerte van de oudheid", pp. 203-204. G.J. de Vries, professor of Greek literature at the Free University since 1955, also argues in his review of Dooyeweerd's book Reformatie en Scholastiek that Dooyeweerd is influenced by the speculative view of Nietzsche and Bachofen. See Hermeneus, 23 (1951-52), pp. 75-77. Richard Kroner is of the same opinion as well. See his book, Speculation in Pre-Christian Philosophy (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1956), p. 25.

316. Ibid., p. 161. Italics mine. For the historical evidence on the continuity of Greek religion, see W. Burkert's work, Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985). This book is the English translation of Griechische Religion der archaischen und klassischen Epoche, in the series Die Religionen der Menschheit, vol. 15, (Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1977).

317. Bos, "Het Grondmotief van de Griekse Cultuur en het Titanische Zin-perspectief," p. 125. See also A.P. Bos, In de greep van de Titanen: Inleiding tot een hoofdstroming van de Griekse filosofie [In the grip of the Titans: Introduction to a mainstream of Greek philosophy] (Amsterdam: Buijten en Schipperheijn, 1991), pp. 14-15.

318. Bos, "Het Grondmotief van de Griekse Cultuur en het Titanische Zin-perspectief," p. 128. Runia, "Dooyeweerd, Bos and the Grondmotief of Greek Culture", p. 161.

319. Runia, ibid.

320. Bos, "Het Grondmotief van de Griekse Cultuur en het Titanische Zin-perspectief," p. 132.

321. Ibid., p. 136.

322. Runia, "Dooyeweerd, Bos and the Grondmotief of Greek Culture", pp. 161-162.

323. Bos, "Dooyeweerd en de wijsbegeerte van de oudheid", pp. 205-218.

324. Ibid., pp. 208-211.

325. Runia, "Dooyeweerd, Bos and the Grondmotief of Greek Culture", p. 169.

326. Bos, "Dooyeweerd en de wijsbegeerte van de oudheid", pp. 207-208.

327. Bos, In de greep van de Titanen, pp. 15-24.

328. Bos, "Het Grondmotief van de Griekse Cultuur en het Titanische Zin-perspectief," p. 133. P.A. Meijer, to the contrary, regarded the "form-matter motive" too statistic and so wanted to replace it with "ground pattern." See his book, Socratisch schimmenspel: Socrates' plaats in de Griekse wijsbegeerte [Socratic shadow-show: Socrates' place in the Greek philosophy] (Amsterdam, 1974), pp. 70-73.

329. Runia, "Dooyeweerd, Bos and the Grondmotief of Greek Culture," p. 165.

330. Ibid.

331. Ibid. In this context, Runia quotes W. Burkert who pointed out that there is no story over the creation of man in Hesiod's Theogony. See Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 188.

332. Ibid., pp. 166-167.

333. Ibid., p. 172.

334. Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 81.

335. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 62. J. van der Hoeven, on the other hand, is of the opinion that although theoretical thought was absolutized by the form motive, it could not totally overcome the influence of the matter motive but rather the idea of autonomous reason makes the dialectical tension between the two basic motives even stronger and more complicated. See J. van der Hoeven, "Vrijheid in historisch perspectief [Freedom in historical perspective]", Vrijheid: een onderzoek naar de betekenis van vrijheid voor de methodologie van de menswetenschappen [Freedom: a research on the significance of freedom for the methodology of the humanities] (Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 1984), pp. 227-228.

336. Runia, "Dooyeweerd, Bos and the Grondmotief of Greek Culture," p. 162.

337. In writing this section, I am greatly indebted to Geertsema's article, "Dooyeweerd in discussie met de rooms-katholieke filosofie [Dooyeweerd in discussion with Roman-Catholic philosophy]" in HD, pp. 228-254.

338. Dooyeweerd, "In den strijd om een christelijke staatkunde" in ARS I (1924-1925), p. 19.

339. Ibid., p. 72f.

340. Ibid., pp. 105, 117f, and 172.

341. Dooyeweerd, WdW I, p. 145.

342. Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 33.

343. Ibid., p. 35.

344. Ibid., p. 36.

345. Ibid., p. 37.

346. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 44.

347. Dooyeweerd, "In de strijd om een christelijke staatkunde", p. 105, 117f, 172. WdW I, p. 145.

348. H. Dooyeweerd, "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en Het Thomistisch Substantiebegrip (I) [The idea of the individuality-structure and the Thomistic concept of substance]", PR 8 (1943), p. 75, 89. This article continued in the following four years with the same title.

349. Dooyeweerd, "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en Het Thomistisch Substantiebegrip (IV) (slot)", PR 11 (1946), p. 51.

350. Dooyeweerd, "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en Het Thomistisch Substantiebegrip (I)", PR 8 (1943), p. 89.

351. Dooyeweerd, "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en Het Thomistisch Substantiebegrip (II)", PR 9 (1944), p. 25.

352. Ibid., p. 33.

353. Dooyeweerd, "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en Het Thomistisch Substantiebegrip (IV) (Slot)", PR 11 (1946), p. 25, 28.

354. Dooyeweerd, "De Idee der Individualiteits-Structuur en Het Thomistisch Substantiebegrip (I)", PR 8 (1943), p. 72, 97.

355. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 71.

356. Ibid., p. 92.

357. Ibid., pp. 91-92.

358. Ibid., pp. 94-95.

359. Ibid., p. 41.

360. Ibid., pp. 41-42.

361. Ibid., p. 46.

362. The first response was published in his article, "Het natuur-genade-schema als religieus grondmotief der scholastieke wijsbegeerte [The nature-grace-schema as religious ground motive of scholastic philosophy]" in Studia Catholica 23 (1948), pp. 69-86. To this, Dooyeweerd replied with two articles, "Het wijsgeerig tweegesprek tusschen de thomistische philosophie en de wijsbegeerte der wetsidee", PR 13 (1948), pp. 26-31 and pp. 49-58. Robbers answered in "De calvinistische wijsbegeerte der wetsidee in gesprek met het thomisme [The calvinistic philosophy of law-idea in dialogue with Thomism]" in Studia Catholica 24 (1949), pp. 161-171. When Dooyeweerd published five years later De analogische grondbegrippen der vakwetenschappen en hun betrekking tot de structuur van den menschelijken ervaringshorizon [The analogical basic concepts of individual disciplines and their relationship with the structure of the human horizon of experience], Mededelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, deel 17, nr 6, (Amsterdam: Noordhollandse uitgeversmaatscahppij, 1954), pp. 1-22, Robbers replied in "Analogie der Grondbegrippen in de Wetenschappen, de Wijsbegeerte en de Theologie [Analogy of the basic concepts in sciences, philosophy and theology]", Studia Catholica 29 (1954), pp. 279-293. Dooyeweerd responded lastly to Robbers in "Het gesprek tussen het neo-thomisme en de wijsbegeerte der wetsidee [The dialogue between neo-Thomism and the philosophy of law-idea]" in Bijdragen. Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie 27 (1966), pp. 202-213.

363. Robbers, "Het natuur-genade-schema", p. 79.

364. Ibid., p. 78.

365. Ibid., pp. 78-79. See also H. Robbers S.J., Wijsbegeerte en Openbaring: Bibliotheek van de thomistische wijsbegeerte [Philosophy and revelation: library of thomistic philosophy] (Utrecht/Brussel: Het Spectrum, 1948), p. 125.

366. Dooyeweerd, "Het wijsgeerig tweegesprek".

367. Robbers, "Het natuur-genade-schema", p. 71.

368. Robbers, "De Calvinistische Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee", p. 169.

369. Robbers, "Het natuur-genade-schema", p. 71.

370. Ibid., p. 73. In another place, God is described as "Actus Purus [Pure Act] and the highest Form." See Robbers, "Analogie der Grondbegrippen in de Wetenschappen," pp. 289-290.

371. Dooyeweerd, "Het wijsgeerig tweegesprek", p. 53.

372. Robbers, "De Calvinistische wijsbegeerte der wetsidee", p. 165 and "Analogie der Grondbegrippen in de Wetenschappen", pp. 287-288.

373. Robbers, "De Calvinistische Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee", p. 164.

374. Ibid.

375. Dooyeweerd, "Het wijsgeerig tweegesprek", p. 51.

376. Dooyeweerd, De Analogische Grondbegrippen der Vakwetenschappen, p. 22.

377. Robbers, "Het natuur-genade-schema", p. 73.

378. Robbers, "De Calvinistische Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee", p. 169.

379. Ibid., pp. 168-169.

380. Marlet, Grundlinien der kalvinistischen "Philosophie der Gesetzesidee" als christlicher Transzendentalphilosophie.

381. Ibid., p. 96.

382. Ibid., p. 81. In this sense, Marlet mentions the identity between Dooyeweerd's transcendental philosophy and the Thomistic philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church.

383. Ibid., pp. 89 and 103f. See also his article, "Theologische bezinning op de filosofie [Theological reflection on philosophy]", in P. Schoonenberg, M.F.J. Marlet and B.A.M Barendse, De verhouding tussen theologie en wijsbegeerte [The relation between theology and philosophy], (Utrecht/Antwerpen: het Spectrum, 1956), p. 25.

384. Ibid., p. 104.

385. Dooyeweerd, "Het gesprek tussen het neo-thomisme en de wijsbegeerte der wetsidee", p. 208.

386. Marlet, Grundlinien, pp. 81, 107. This is why Marlet stresses words like Mitvollzug and Mitwirkung (p. 103). See also his article, "Theologische bezinning op de filosofie", p. 25.

387. Ibid., pp. 102, 104.

388. Ibid., p. 125.

389. M.F.J. Marlet, "Wijsbegeerte der wetsidee en thomistisch denken [Philosophy of the cosmonomic idea and thomistic thought]" in W.K. van Dijk, J. Stellingwerff e.a. eds. Perspectief: Feestbundel van de jongeren bij het vijfentwintig jarig bestaan van de Vereniging voor Calvinistische Wijsbegeerte [Perspective: Festschrift of the youth by the twenty-five year anniversary of the Association for Calvinistic philosophy] (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1961), pp. 37-38.

390. Marlet, "Theologische bezinning op de filosofie", p. 25.

391. Marlet, "Wijsbegeerte der wetsidee en thomistisch denken", pp. 38-39. Italics mine.

392. Marlet, Grundlinien, p. 105. For the difference between Dooyeweerd's idea of law and Marlet's idea of being, see Geertsema's article, "Dooyeweerd in discussie met de rooms-katholieke filosofie", pp. 245-248.

393. Ibid., pp. 82, 109, 112, 115, 125-127, 129.

394. See Dooyeweerd's "Zum Geleit" in Marlet's dissertation, especially p. vi. Zuidema raises the same question in his book review, in Gereformeerd Theologisch Tijdschrift, 55 (1955), p. 125.

395. Marlet, "Wijsbegeerte der wetsidee en thomistisch denken", p. 37. Cf. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 72. Dooyeweerd says here that this is only understandable from the dialectical scholastic basic motive of nature and grace.

396. G.C. Berkouwer, "Identiteit of conflict? [Identity or conflict?]" PR 21 (1956), p. 44.

397. Dooyeweerd, "Het gesprek tussen het neo-thomisme en de wijsbegeerte der wetsidee", p. 213. The position of Marlet is here indicated as "neo-Thomism."

398. Marlet, "Wijsbegeerte der wetsidee en thomistisch denken", p. 39. Italics mine.

399. Ibid.

400. J. Klapwijk, "Louet Feisser en Marlet over de W.d.W. [Louet Feisser and Marlet about the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea]", Sola fide, XVI/2 jrg. 16 (Feb. 1963), p. 21.

401. Geertsema, "Dooyeweerd in discussie met de rooms-katholieke filosofie", p. 244. In his book review of Marlet's dissertation, Zuidema makes the criticizm that by serving theology, philosophy loses its original task: the research for world and man as world and man. See his review in Gereformeerd Theologisch Tijdschrift, pp. 122-126, especially p. 124. Dooyeweerd also criticizes the ambiguous use of the term "theology". On the one hand, it is conceived as scientific thought but on the other hand, as knowledge of faith as such. See Dooyeweerd, "De verhouding tussen wijsbegeerte en theologie en de strijd der faculteiten."

402. Marlet, "Wijsbegeerte der wetsidee en thomistisch denken", pp. 37-38.

403. Considering the many critical questions raised about Dooyeweerd's view of cosmic time, Klapwijk judges that Marlet's idea seems to be more proper because it reveals the idea of genesis which goes through all the aspects in coherence. See Klapwijk, "Louet Feisser en Marlet over de W.d.W.", p. 21.

404. Marlet, "Wijsbegeerte der wetsidee en thomistische denken", p. 38.

405. J.A. Aertsen, "Uit God Zijn Alle Dingen: Enkele overwegingen bij de 700ste sterfdag van Thomas van Aquino [From God are all things: Some reflections in the 700th year commemorating the death of Thomas Aquinas]", PR, 42 (1974). p. 155. See also Aertsen's Ph.D dissertation, Natura en Creatura: De denkweg van Thomas van Aquino [Nature and Creature: The way of thinking of Thomas Aquinas] I, (Amsterdam: VU press, 1982), pp. 21-28.

406. Aertsen, "Uit God Zijn Alle Dingen", pp. 114-118. The Greek answer to the problem of being is `natura', explains Aertsen. See Natura en Creatura II, p. 385.

407. Ibid., pp. 113-115.

408. Ibid., p. 140. English translation is from his summary at pp. 154-155.

409. Ibid., p. 114.

410. Ibid., p. 155.

411. Aertsen, Natura en Creatura, p. 387.

412. Ibid., p. 389.

413. See for a further explanation, Aertsen, "Uit God Zijn Alle Dingen", p. 142.

414. Aertsen, Natura en Creatura, p. 387.

415. Dengerink, De zin van de werkelijkheid, p. 99. In the spirit of Marlet and Aertsen, Dengerink distances himself from Dooyeweerd's thesis that Thomas' thought is in principle a compromise between the two religious ground motives which can never be reconciled with each other. See, ibid., p. 97.

416. Ibid.

417. Ibid.

418. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 56.

419. Berkouwer, "Identiteit of conflict?", p. 44.

420. Ibid., p. 37.

421. Ibid., p. 39. Cf. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 115.

422. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 123.

423. Berkouwer, "Identiteit of conflict?", p. 39.

424. Ibid., p. 41.

425. J. van der Hoeven, "Dooyeweerd en de geschiedenis van de moderne wijsbegeerte [Dooyeweerd and the history of modern philosophy]" HD, p. 255.

426. Dooyeweerd, RS, pp. 37-38.

427. Ibid., p. 38.

428. This theme has been elaborated by B. Goudzwaard. See chapter 5.

429. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 50.

430. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 502.

431. Ibid., p. 503.

432. Ibid., p. 504.

433. Ibid., pp. 216-261.

434. Ibid., p. 219.

435. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 68.

436. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 502.

437. Ibid., p. 503.

438. Ibid., p. 504.

439. Ibid., pp. 262-324.

440. Ibid., p. 263.

441. Ibid., p. 207. The Enlightenment of the 18th century which Kant advocated so enthusiastically resulted from the axiomatic faith in human autonomous reason as the foundation of human freedom.

442. Ibid. See also Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 39.

443. Dooyeweerd, Transcendental Problems, p. 74.

444. Ibid., p. 75.

445. Dooyeweerd, RS, p. 40. Cf. NC I, pp. 207-208.

446. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 51.

447. Remarkable is that there is a close similarity between the analysis of Dooyeweerd and that of the neo-marxism of the Frankfurt School (the so-called "Dialektik der Aufklärung"). See, for instance, J. Klapwijk, Dialektiek der verlichting: een verkenning in het neo-marxisme van de Frankfurter Schule [Dialectic of the enlightenment: a survey in the neo-marxism of the Frankfurt School] (Assen/Amsterdam: Van Gorcum, 1976). The difference, however, lies in the fact that the critical thinkers of the latter such as Adorno, Horkheimer, Marcuse, and Habermas did not give up their presupposition, viz., their ultimate faith in the liberating power of autonomous reason whereas Dooyeweerd rejected it from out of his transcendental critical perspective.

448. J. van der Hoeven, "Dooyeweerd en de geschiedenis van de moderne wijsbegeerte [Dooyeweerd and the history of modern philosophy]" in HD, pp. 255-274 especially pp. 272-273. Cf. J. van der Hoeven, "Grondmotiven van onze beschaving [Basic motives of our civilization]" PR 56 (1991) pp. 171-182, and Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen [Philosophical reflections and encounters] eds. R. van Woudenberg, S. Griffioen, and H. Geertsema (Kampen: Kok Agora, 1993), pp. 76-89.

449. Ibid., p. 257. He summed up this issue as "opposition in continuous contact (tegenstelling in blijvend contact)." See his article, "Grondmotiven van onze beschaving", p. 83. Cf. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 119.

450. Ibid., pp. 264-266.

451. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 223.

452. Ibid., p. 505.

453. J. van der Hoeven, "Dooyeweerd en de geschiedenis van de moderne wijsbegeerte", pp. 272-273.

454. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 196.

455. Ibid., p. 453.

456. Van der Hoeven, "Dooyeweerd en de geschiedenis van de moderne wijsbegeerte", p. 272.

457. Ibid., p. 273.

458. J.F. Glastra van Loon, "Dooyeweerd in gesprek met de filosofie [Dooyeweerd in dialogue with philosophy]" in Dooyeweerd Herdacht: Referaten gehouden op het Dooyeweerd-symposium aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam op vrijdag 18 november 1994 [Dooyeweerd commemorated: Lectures held at the Dooyeweerd-symposium at the Free University Amsterdam on Friday, November 18, 1994] edited by J. de Bruijn, (Amsterdam: VU Press, 1995), pp. 95-113.

459. Ibid., p. 99.

460. Ibid., p. 112.

461. Ibid.

462. Ibid., p. 101.

463. Ibid., p. 110.

464. Dooyeweerd, "De transcendentale critiek", p. 327.

465. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 54.

466. Dooyeweerd, VB, p. 6. The English translation is from RWC.

467. J. Kraay, "Translator's Preface" in Roots, p. x.

468. H.G. Geertsema, "Dooyeweerd's Transcendental Critique: Transforming it Hermeneutically", pp. 14-15.

469. Dooyeweerd fully acknowledges this point, saying that "[e]very philosophical reflection is a fallible human activity and a Christian philosophy has, as such, no privileged position in this respect." See TWT, pp. 53-54.

470. Dooyeweerd, NC I, pp. 20, 41.

471. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 32.

472. Ibid., p. 34.

473. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 9.

474. Ibid., p. 108.

475. Ibid., p. 109.

476. J. van der Hoeven, "Grondmotiven van onze beschaving" PR 56 (1991), pp. 171-182.

477. Dooyeweerd, NC III, p. 199. Dooyeweerd argues here that it was Protagoras who first expressed this general view philosophically.

478. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 22.

479. Ibid.

480. Ibid., p. 10, 22f.

481. Ibid., pp. 22-23.

482. Ibid., p. 23.

483. Ibid.

484. NC III, p. 217.

485. RWC, p. 23.

486. Ibid., p. 24.

487. Ibid., p. 26.

488. Ibid., p. 24. Italics are mine. Concerning the form of ancestor worship among the Romans, see also NC III, pp. 352-353.

489. Ibid.

490. Ibid., p. 27.

491. Ibid., p. 29.

492. Ibid., pp. 31-35.

493. Ibid., p. 10.

494. Ibid.

495. It should be indicated here as a deficiency that Dooyeweerd made his whole understanding of the Middle Ages depend solely on an analysis of Thomas. The medieval age was indeed a long period but Thomas came only in the thirteenth century.

496. Ibid., p. 75 and NC III, p. 217.

497. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 130.

498. Dooyeweerd, NC III, pp. 218ff.

499. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 122. Cf. NC II, p. 419.

500. Ibid.

501. Ibid., p. 123.

502. Ibid., p. 124.

503. Ibid.

504. Ibid., p. 126. Cf. NC III, pp. 218-219.

505. Ibid.

506. Ibid., p. 131 and NC III, p. 220.

507. Ibid., p. 129 and NC III, ibid.

508. Dooyeweerd, NC III, p. 221.

509. Ibid. and RWC, p. 131.

510. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 137.

511. Ibid., pp. 137-138 and NC I, pp. 66-67.

512. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 183.

513. Ibid., p. 189.

514. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 123.

515. Ibid., p. 126.

516. Ibid., p. 156.

517. Dooyeweerd, NC III, p. 398. Cf. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 69.

518. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 158.

519. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 69.

520. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 318.

521. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 162.

522. Ibid.

523. Ibid., p. 165.

524. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 318.

525. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 170. See also NC I, p. 320.

526. Ibid.

527. Ibid. See also NC I, p. 323 where he says, "[t]he limits of the competency of the legislator which ROUSSEAU constructed are not real ones, since they are neither grounded on the inner nature and structure of the different social relationships, nor on the modal structure of the juridical aspect, but have been deduced from the abstract principle of equality and generality which neglects all structural differences in social reality."

528. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 323.

529. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 165.

530. Ibid., pp. 165-166.

531. Ibid., pp. 166-167.

532. Ibid., p. 174.

533. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 72.

534. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 73.

535. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 177.

536. Ibid.

537. Ibid.

538. Ibid., p. 178.

539. Ibid.

540. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 74.

541. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 178.

542. Ibid.

543. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 62.

544. Ibid., pp. 61-62.

545. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 187. See also NC I, p. 208 and TWT, pp. 80-81.

546. Ibid., p. 189.

547. Ibid. and NC I, p. 209.

548. Dooyeweerd, RWC, p. 204.

549. Ibid., pp. 204-205.

550. Ibid., p. 205.

551. Ibid., p. 216. See also NC I, p. 208.

552. Dooyeweerd, NC I, p. 210 and TWT, p. 80.

553. Dooyeweerd, TWT, p. 80.

554. Ibid.

555. Ibid., pp. 210-211.

556. Ibid., p. 212.

557. Ibid., p. 214.

558. Ibid., p. 215. However, history has developed in a slightly different way since Dooyeweerd said this. For instance, the Soviet Union has collapsed and as a result, the Eastern European communist block has been destroyed as well.

559. Concerning the influence of Mekkes, see the opening interview in J. van der Hoeven, Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen.

560. Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn, 1963.

561. J. van der Hoeven, "Revolutie en filosofie [Revolution and philosophy]" in Marxism en Revolutie [Marxism and Revolution] edited by J. van der Hoeven, e.a. (Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn, 1967), pp. 11-66 and later in Karl Marx: The Roots of His Thought (Assen/Amsterdam: Van Gorcum, 1976).

562. Van der Hoeven, "Revolutie en filosofie", p. 35.

563. J. van der Hoeven, "Grondmotieven van onze beschaving", a lecture delivered in the International school for philosophy in Leusden, Holland, on April 21, 1990. First published in PR 56 (1991), pp. 171-181 and later in Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen, pp. 76-89.

564. Ibid., p. 78.

565. Ibid., p. 83.

566. Ibid.

567. Ibid.

568. Ibid., p. 84.

569. Ibid., p. 85.

570. For more about the background, philosophical method and style of J. van der Hoeven, see the interview in Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen, pp. 9-20.

571. J. van der Hoeven, "Cultuur en Woestijn [Culture and desert]", Beweging 50 (1986), pp. 42-49. See also the same article in Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen, pp. 67-74.

572. J. van der Hoeven, "Christian Philosophy at the end of the 20th century", Christian Philosophy at the Close of the Twentieth Century: Assessment and Perspective, edited by S. Griffioen and B. M. Balk (Kampen: Kok, 1995), pp. 55-56.

573. Ibid., p. 56. Van der Hoeven adds that A. Plantinga expresses the same idea with the word "naturalism".

574. Ibid., pp. 57-60. For more details, see J. van der Hoeven, "Na 50 Jaar: Philosophia Reformata - Philosophia Reformanda [After 50 years: reformed philosophy - philosophy being reformed]", PR 51 (1986), pp. 7-13 and the same article in Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen, pp. 92-99.

575. Notre Dame: U.P, 1981.

576. J. van der Hoeven, "Bondgenoten: Over Joods denken en reformatorische wijsbegeerte [Partners: concerning Jewish thought and reformational philosophy]", Filosofische Reflecties en Ontmoetingen, pp. 172-180.

577. Van der Hoeven, "Christian Philosophy at the end of the 20th century", pp. 60-63.

578. Ibid., pp. 63-65.

579. Van der Hoeven, "Na 50 Jaar", p. 13.

580. Ibid., p. 15.

581. Ibid.

582. [The attractive appeal of the middle: historical-critical study of a Western way of thought], Kampen: Kok Agora, 1994.

583. See PR 61 (1996), pp. 2-60.

584. J. Klapwijk, Tussen historisme en relativisme: Een studie over de dynamiek van het historisme en de wijsgerige ontwikkelingsgang van Ernst Troeltsch [Between historicism and relativism: A study on the dynamic of historicism and the philosophical development of Ernst Troeltsch], (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1970).

585. Dooyeweerd, NC II, pp. 205-206, 355-356. Quotation is from p. 205.

586. Ibid., p. 205.

587. Klapwijk, Tussen historisme en relativisme, pp. 49-50.

588. Ibid., p. 49 footnote 1. In his book review, however, L.H. Bouwkamp argues that the problems in Troeltsch could be explained from the internal tensions of Troeltsch himself. In other words, the combination of religious idealism and practical meaning of reality was the cause of the great crisis in his thought. See PR 40 (1975), pp. 160-174, especially p. 168f. But it seems to me that Klapwijk's view is more persuasive if we assume that Troeltsch was not an independent thinker but rather was influenced by many other theologians and philosophers of the time.

589. J. Klapwijk, Philosophien im Widerstreit: Zur Philosophie von Dilthey, Heidegger, James, Wittgenstein und Marcuse [Philosophies in conflict: Concerning the philosophy of Dilthey, Heidegger, James, Wittgenstein and Marcuse] (Asslar: Schulte+Gerth, Riehen/Sweitz: Immanuel-Verlag, 1985), Philosophische Kritik und Göttliche Offenbarung: Über Religionskritik, Kulturkritik, Gesellschaftskritik und Vernunftkritik im modernen Denken [Philosophical critique and divine revelation: Over critique of religion, culture, society and reason in modern thought] (Riehen/Sweitz: Immanuel-Verlag, 1991).

590. Klapwijk, Dialektiek der verlichting, pp. 115-116. W.N.A Klever, however, finds it unsatisfactory that Klapwijk, after his outstanding analysis of the antinomies in the Frankfurter Schule, tries to solve them in this kind of supernatural way. See his review in Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte [General Dutch periodical for philosophy], (1977), pp. 141-142.

591. J. Klapwijk, "Reformational Philosophy on the Boundary between the Past and the Future", PR 52 (1987), p. 123. This article is later republished in Dutch as a revised and shortened form in Transformationele filosofie: Cultuurpolitieke ideeën en de kracht van een inspiratie [Transformational philosophy: cultural political ideas and the power of an inspiration], eds. R. van Woudenberg and S. Griffioen, (Kampen: Kok Agora, 1995), pp. 209-220.

592. Ibid., p. 128. See also for details, J. Klapwijk, "Een voorlopige standpuntbepaling t.a.v. de geschiedfilosofie van prof. dr. H. Dooyeweerd [A tentative determination of standpoint concerning the philosophy of history of prof. dr. H. Dooyeweerd]" Correspondentiebladen van de Vereniging voor Calvinistische Wijsbegeerte 29 (april, 1965), pp. 18-21. Cf. J. Klapwijk, "Over verschuiving van normen en historische filosofie [On the shifting of norms and historical philosophy]", PR 37 (1972), p. 29, footnote 6.

593. Dooyeweerd, NC II, p. 361; cf. pp. 334-37.

594. J. Klapwijk, "Reformational Philosophy on the Boundary between the Past and the Future", p. 123.

595. Ibid., p. 109.

596. Ibid.

597. Ibid., p. 103.

598. J. Klapwijk, "Antithesis, synthesis, and the idea of transformational philosophy", PR 51 (1986), p. 140. This article is later republished in Dutch in Transformationele filosofie, pp. 175-193.

599. Ibid., p. 142.

600. Klapwijk, "Reformational Philosophy on the Boundary between the Past and the Future", p. 104.

601. J. Klapwijk, "Epilogue: The Idea of Transformational Philosophy" in Bringing into Captivity Every Thought: CAPITA SELECTA in the history of Christian evaluations of non-Christian philosophy, edited by J. Klapwijk, S. Griffioen and G. Groenewoud (Lanham: University Press of America, 1991), p. 247.

602. Klapwijk, "Antithesis, synthesis, and the idea of transformational philosophy", p. 141.

603. Ibid.

604. Klapwijk, "Epilogue: The Idea of Transformational Philosophy", pp. 247-248.

605. Ibid., p. 248.

606. Klapwijk, "Antithesis, synthesis, and the idea of transformational philosophy", p. 143.

607. Ibid., p. 144.

608. Klapwijk, "Reformational Philosophy on the Boundary between the Past and the Future", p. 105.

609. Klapwijk, "Antithesis, synthesis, and the idea of transformational philosophy", p. 146.

610. Ibid.

611. Ibid., p. 147.

612. Klapwijk, "On Worldviews and Philosophy", p. 52.

613. Klapwijk, "Reformational Philosophy on the Boundary between the Past and the Future", p. 110.

614. Ibid., p. 122.

615. Ibid., p. 114.

616. Ibid., p. 115.

617. Ibid., p. 129.

618. Ibid., p. 124.

619. Klapwijk, "Epilogue: The Idea of Transformational Philosophy", p. 252.

620. Klapwijk, "Antithesis, Synthesis, and the Idea of Transformational Philosophy", p. 149.

621. Ibid.

622. Ibid.

623. Ibid., p. 151.

624. Ibid.

625. Ibid., p. 130.

626. Ibid.

627. A.P. Bos, "Transformation and deformation in philosophy", PR 52 (1987), p. 135.

628. Ibid., p. 136.

629. Ibid., pp. 137-138. See also, id., "Het thema van `de beroving van de Egyptenaren'" [The theme of `the spoliation of the Egyptians'] in Geboeid door Plato [Captivated by Plato], (Kampen: Kok, 1996), pp. 56-76.

630. H.G. Geertsema, "Christian philosophy: Transformation or inner Reformation", p. 155.

631. Ibid., pp. 159-160.

632. Ibid., pp. 160-161.

633. J.D. Dengerink, "Een brug te ver: Een antwoord aan J. Klapwijk [A bridge too far: A response to J. Klapwijk]", PR 53 (1988), p. 30.

634. B. Goudzwaard, "Dooyeweerds maatschappelijke opvattingen [Dooyeweerd's view of society]" in Dooyeweerd Herdacht, p. 36.

635. It is published in: W.K. van Dijk e.a., Perspectief, pp. 310-324.

636. Den Haag: N.V. Uitgeverij W.P. Van Stockum en Zoon, 1970.

637. Ibid., p. 97.

638. Ibid., p. 168. See also pp. 10-11.

639. B. Goudzwaard, Economie en Vooruitgangsidee [Economy and the idea of progress], (Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn N.V., 1972), p. 5. He quoted this from H. Dooyeweerd, Maatstaven ter onderkenning van progressieve en reactionaire bewegingen, Rede 150-jarig bestaan Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen [Criteria for distinguishing progressive and reactionary movements: Address for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Academy of Sciences], (Amsterdam, 1958), p. 64. Goudzwaard's inaugural address was later republished in Schaduwen van het groei-geloof [Shadows of the belief in growth], (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1974), pp. 98-131.

640. Ibid., p. 15.

641. Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation, 1975.

642. Ibid., p. 1.

643. Ibid., p. 3.

644. Ibid., p. 4.

645. Ibid., p. 13.

646. Ibid., p. 54.

647. Ibid.

648. Ibid., p. 14.

649. B. Goudzwaard, Economie en Vooruitgangsidee, p. 16.

650. Goudzwaard, Aid for the Overdeveloped West, pp. 20-21.

651. Lk. 12 and 16; I Pet. 4:10.

652. Ibid., pp. 56-57.

653. Ibid., p. 57.

654. Ibid., p. 30. Italics mine.

655. Ibid.

656. Trans. by Mark Vander Vennen, (Downers Grove: IVP, 1984). The original Dutch book is titled, Genoodzaakt goed te wezen: christelijke hoop in een bezeten wereld [Obliged to be good: Christian hope in a possessed world], (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1981). Goudzwaard points out that Dooyeweerd has rarely dealt with the issue of "ideology" in NC.

657. Rev. 22:16.

658. See also, Bob Goudzwaard and Harry de Lange, Beyond Poverty and Affluence: Toward an economy of care, (Grand Rapids/Geneva: Eerdmans/WCC, 1995). This book is an English translation of the Dutch book, Genoeg van te veel, Genoeg van te weinig: Wissels omzetten in de economie, (Baarn: Ten Have, 1986, 3e ed. 1991).

659. On the theme of vocation or calling, see his article, "Christian Social Thought in the Dutch Neo-Calvinist Tradition" in Religion, Economics and Social Thought: Proceedings of an International Symposium, edited by Walter Block & Irving Hexham, (Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1986), pp. 253-254. Quoting Calvin's thought that calling has also an institutional dimension, Goudzwaard mentions here two important insights: (1) "because of the universal significance of Christ's redemptive work, there are no longer different degrees of holiness in natural reality." (2) "within each sphere of life not only human will, but also God's calling, prevails. This gives the sphere-sovereignty principle a genuinely normative colour."

660. Its subtitle is Een eigentijdse maatschappijkritiek [A contemporary social critique]. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1976. The second and revised edition was published in 1978. The English translation is Capitalism & Progress: A diagnosis of western society, translated and edited by Josina Van Nuis Zylstra, (Toronto and Grand Rapids: Wedge and Eerdmans, 1979).

661. Ibid. (English edition), pp. xxii-xxiii.

662. For instance, environmental and resource problems, inflation and unemployment, alienation and loneliness.

663. Ibid., pp. 13-14.

664. Ibid., pp. 155-156.

665. In another article, he calls this "a new architectonic critique of the foundations of our present society." See "Christian Social Thought in the Dutch Neo-Calvinist Tradition", p. 263.

666. Ibid. (English edition), p. 193.

667. Ibid., pp. 197-199.

668. Ibid., p. 200.

669. Ibid., p. 193.

670. Ibid., p. 209.

671. Ibid., p. 213.

672. Ibid., p. 242.

673. Ibid., p. 249.

674. B. Goudzwaard, "Samenhang tussen de oorzaken van de sociale problemen [Coherence among the causes of the social problems]" Congresboek van het christelijk social congress: 1991 [Congress book of the Christian Social Congress: 1991], edited by Mr. P.A.G. Cammaert and C.A. van den Berg (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1992), p. 74.

675. Congresboek van het christelijk social congress: 1991, p. 82.

676. E. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", Christian Philosophy at the Close of the Twentieth Century, p. 186. This article is again published in Perspectives on Technology and Culture (Sioux Center, Iowa: Dordt Colleges Press, 1995), pp. 131-151. Italics mine.

677. Ibid., p. 185.

678. Ibid., pp. 186-187.

679. E. Schuurman, Techniek en Toekomst: Confrontatie met wijsgerige beschouwingen (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1972). It has been translated into English by Herbert Donald Morton with the title, Technology and the Future: a Philosophical Challenge (Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation, 1980).

680. Ibid., p. 400.

681. Later, Schuurman divides various philosophical perspectives on modern technology into six different traditions: a positivistic-pragmatic view, a marxistic one, a system analysis, existentialism, neo-marxism, and a counter-cultural view. See Schuurman, Perspectives on Technology and Culture, pp. 24-31.

682. Schuurman, Techniek en Toekomst, p. 418. Cf. A. Vlot, "Cultuur- en techniekfilosofie" [Philosophy of culture and technology], in R. van Woudenberg e.a. Kennis en werkelijkheid: tweede inleiding tot een christelijke filosofie [Knowledge and reality: The second introduction to a Christian philosophy] (Amsterdam: Buijten en Schipperheijn, Kampen: Kok, 1996), pp. 226ff.

683. Ibid. This point is discussed later in detail.

684. E. Schuurman, "Leven in een Technische Wereld: De spanning tussen technokratie en revolutie [Life in a technological world: The tension between technocracy and revolution]", in Technik: middel of moloch?: Een christelijk-wijsgerige benadering van de crisis in de technisch-wetenschappelijke cultuur [Technology: means or moloch?: A Christian-philosophical approach of the crisis in technological-scientific culture] (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1977), p. 7. This article is the revised version of his inaugural address at the Technological University of Eindhoven in 1973.

685. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", p. 185.

686. E. Schuurman, "Leven in een Technische Wereld", p. 21 and "Na-denken over de technisch-wetenschappelijke kultuur [Reflection on technological-scientific culture]" in the same book, p. 78. The latter is the revised version of his inaugural address at the Technological University of Delft in 1975. For further development of this idea, see Schuurman's other article, "Geestelijk-historische achtergrond van de vertechniseerde samenleving [Spiritual-historical background of technologicalized society]" in Tussen Technische Overmacht en Menselijke Onmacht: verantwoordelijkheid in een technische maatschappij [Between technological dominance and human impotence: responsibility in a technological society], (Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1985), pp. 9-17. In this article, Schuurman sketches the process of the spiritual history of the technological control of reality from the Renaissance via rationalism and the Enlightenment to positivism and marxism.

687. Schuurman, "Na-denken over de technisch-wetenschappelijke kultuur", p. 76. Schuurman's two inaugural addresses in Eindhoven and Delft were translated into English and published with the title, Reflections on the technological society (Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation, 1977).

688. E. Schuurman, "Voortgaande Verwetenschappelijking, Voortgaande Vertechnisering: Konfrontatie met de systeemfilosofie van Ervin Laszlo [Advancing scientification, advancing technification: Confrontation with the systems philosophy of Ervin Laszlo]" in Techniek: middel of moloch?, pp. 96-97.

689. Schuurman, "Na-denken over de technisch-wetenschappelijke kultuur", p. 79.

690. Ibid., p. 26.

691. Schuurman, "Voortgaande Verwetenschappelijking, Voortgaande Vertechnisering", p. 115.

692. Ibid., p. 117.

693. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", p. 187.

694. Ibid., p. 188.

695. Ibid.

696. Ibid.

697. Schuurman, Perspectives on Technology and Culture, p. 74.

698. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", p. 188. See also his recent book, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek: Hoop voor de toekomst [Faith in science and technology: Hope for the future] (Amsterdam: Buijten & Schipperheijn, 1998), pp. 132-133.

699. Schuurman, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek, p. 134.

700. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", p. 191.

701. Ibid., p. 192. See also Schuurman, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek, pp. 125-131.

702. Ibid., p. 193.

703. Ibid.

704. Ibid.

705. Ibid., p. 194.

706. Ibid., p. 195. See also Schuurman, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek, pp. 140-141. According to Schuurman, Kuyper even regarded the possibilities of technology as greater miracles than those of Jesus in his book Pro Rege.

707. Ibid.

708. E. Schuurman, "Een bijbelse visie op de technische ontwikkeling [A biblical view of technological development]", in Techniek: middel of moloch?, pp. 130-131.

709. Schuurman, Perspectives on Technology and Culture, p. 74. See also Schuurman, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek, pp. 152-184.

710. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", p. 199.

711. Schuurman, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek, pp. 176-180.

712. Schuurman, Perspectives on Technology and Culture, p. 96.

713. Schuurman, "Techniek en verantwoordelijkheid [Technology and responsibility]", in Tussen technische overmacht en menselijke onmacht, p. 62.

714. Ibid.

715. Ibid.

716. Schuurman, Geloven in wetenschap en techniek, p. 149, 189.

717. Mt. 10:16, NIV translation.

718. Goudzwaard, Capitalism and Progress, p. 188. Italics mine.

719. H.E.S. Woldring/D.Th. Kuiper, Reformatorische Maatschappijkritiek, p. 349.

720. Ibid., p. 382.

721. Vlot, "Cultuur- en techniekfilosofie", pp. 222-225.

722. Prof. Dr. Bong-Ho Son offered this comment on the recent book of Schuurman, Geloof in wetenschap en techniek.

723. Schuurman, "The Technological culture between the times", p. 185.

724. Ibid., p. 186.

725. Ibid., p. 192.

726. Schuurman seems to imply this in his new book, Geloof in wetenschap en techniek, p. 192.

727. Mircea Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, (New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1964), pp. 461-462 and Shamanism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), p. 462. Owens Donald Dean is of the same opinion in his dissertation, Korean Shamanism: Its Components, Context, and Function (The University of Oklahoma, 1975), pp. 3-4. For further research on this theme, see Lee J.Y., Korean Shamanistic Rituals (The Hague: Mouton, 1981), pp. 1-26. Reference to Korean names will be made with the last name first, as is the Korean custom.

728. According to Kim John T., Korean shamanism might have adopted the following ideas from higher religions: "1) from Confucianism, ancestor worship, heaven worship, the rites; 2) from Buddhism the idea of the existence of heaven and hell; 3) from Taoism the pursuit of long life and immortality and the desire to live in harmony with nature." See his dissertation, Korean Church Growth in a Shamanistic Context, (Amsterdam: VU, 1995), pp.

729. Lee Ki-baik, A New History of Korea, trans. Edward W. Wagner with Edward J. Schultz (Seoul: Ilchikak, 1984), pp. 7-8.

730. Kim Kyoung-jae, Christianity and the encounter of Asian religions: Method of correlation, fusion of horizons, and paradigm shifts in the Korean grafting process, Ph.D. dissertation, (Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 1994), p. 68.

731. In the same way, James Legge argues that the religion of the ancient Chinese was also a monotheism. See his book, The Religions of China: Confucianism and Taoism described and compared with Christianity, (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1880), pp. 8-11.

732. Kim K.J. uses the term Pungryudo of Ryu Tong-shik in his doctorate thesis, Christianity and the encounter of Asian religions, pp. 59-72. But Lee J.Y. calls it Synkyo [religion of god] in Korean Shamanistic Rituals. Actually, Pungryudo was first mentioned in an epitaph on the tombstone of a Hwarang cadet named Nallang, written by Choi Chi-won, the greatest scholar in Shilla, as the unique religion of ancient Korea including Confucianism (loyal to the king and filial to the parents), Buddhism (not commit evil acts but only good ones) and Taoism (not force matters but allow them to unfold naturally). For details, see Hanguk Chulhaksa [The history of Korean philosophy], ed. by the society of Korean philosophers, Vol. I, (Seoul: Dongmyungsa, 1997), pp. 133-158.

733. Ilyon, Samkuk Yusa [Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms], trans. Ha Tae-hung, Grafton K. Mints (Seoul: Yunsei Univ. Press, 1972), pp. 32-33.

734. Hana means "one" in Korean and Korea is Hanguk in Korean (guk means nation). Nim is an honorary suffix. In the Korean language, numerous words are etymologically related to the word Han. The aboriginal tribes of the Korean peninsula were Mahan, Chinhan, and Pyonhan. Even the Mongolian, Turkish and Hungarian languages contain the words Khan and Chan which can be translated into English as the Grand One, Great, Ruler, King, and the Lord. See Spencer J. Palmer, Korea and Christianity: the problem of identification with tradition (Seoul: Hollym corporation, 1967), pp. 7-8.

735. Kim Duk-hwang, Hanguk Chongkyosa [The history of Korean religions], (Seoul: Haemoonsa, 1963), pp. 42-53. According to Palmer, Hananim was a point of contact between the Korean culture and the Christian religion. As a personal transcendent God, this supreme deity of the Korean people, Hananim was uniquely suited to prepare the Korean people for belief in the Christian God. Because of this, Hananim was a concept upon which the Christian missionaries working in Korea could rather easily agree. The rapid growth of Christianity in Korea, therefore, can partially be explained on the basis of the fact that the Shamanistic Koreans found a mirror of their own true god in Christian religion. See his book, Korea and Christianity, pp. 17-18.

736. Therefore, it is not proper to interpret this Tangun myth from the standpoint of Christian Trinitarianism, as some Korean Christians have done. The chief proponent of this thesis is Yun Sung-bum. See his book, Kidokkyowa Hanguk sasang [Christianity and Korean thought], (Seoul: Kidokkyosuhoe, 1964). According to him, Hwan-in is the father, Hwan-ung is his son and Tangun is the first human king. But this Trinitarian faith is not the same as the Christian one because the former represents three generations of Hananim.

737. Lee J.Y., Korean Shamanistic Rituals, p. 19.

738. Kim D.H., Hanguk Chongkyosa, pp. 40ff.

739. In this sense, shamanism in Korea is different from the Greek nature religion which absolutized only the natural, organic aspect of life. See chapter 3, section 2.

740. Cf. B.C.A Walraven, Muga: The Songs of Korean Shamanism, Ph.D. dissertation, (Leiden: Leiden Univ., 1985).

741. Kim K.J., Christianity and the encounter of Asian religions, pp. 64-65. However, no general agreement on this concept has been made among Korean scholars. For more about the concept of Han, see Choi Min-Hong, A Modern History of Korean Philosophy, (Seoul: Seong Moon Sa, 1978), pp. 247-250. Here the author, regarding Han philosophy as the typical Korean philosophy, claims that Han philosophy is "a philosophy of totality or unity, contains within itself the principle of harmony"(p. 247). See also his other book, Han Philosophy and the 21st Century, (Seoul: Seong Moon Sa, 1990).

742. It is difficult to call the spiritual or demonic world a `modality' because Dooyeweerd does not explicitly mention this kind of `aspect' in his theory even though the last aspect, the pistic, can be said to have some relationship to this world.

743. Hahm Pyong-choon, "Shamanism and the Korean World-view" in Shamanism: The Spirit World of Korea, ed. by Richard W.I. Guisso and Chai-shin Yu, (Berkeley, California: Asian Humanities Press, 1988), pp. 62, 74.

744. Cf. Kim J.T., Korean Church Growth in a Shamanistic Context, pp. 69-73 and Jun Ho-jin, Jonggyodawonjoouiwa Tajonggyo Sunkyo junryak [Religious pluralism and mission strategy for other religions] (Seoul: Gaehyukjooui Sinhaenghyubhoi, 1992), pp. 136-139.

745. Yoon Yee-heum, "The Role of Shamanism in Korean Culture" in Koreana: Korean Cultural Heritage, Vol. II (thought and religion), ed. by Kim Joung-win (Seoul: Korean Foundation, 1996), p. 190.

746. Cf. Kim J.T., Korean Church Growth in a Shamanistic Context.

747. It is very difficult to give an exact number of shamanistic believers in Korea but according to Park U.U., more than eighty percent of the South Korean population join in shamanistic practices even though many of them believe in one of the other major religions. See Park U.U., "A Study on the Relation of Shamanism to Other Religions," Korean Religions, Vol. II. (Jan, 1970), p. 1.

748. This point will be made clear in the following sections.

749. Ryu T.S., Hanguk Mukyoeui Yeksawa Koojo, pp. 73, 88, 116-133, 210, 230, 259.

750. Donald Stone Macdonald, The Koreans: Contemporary Politics and Society, edited and revised by Donald N. Clark (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996), p. 99.

751. Today this festival is held on the Buddha's birthday in the eighth day of the fourth lunar month.

752. Kim J.T., Korean Church Growth in a Shamanistic Context, pp. 31-33.

753. This does not mean, however, that Buddhism is not socially conscious at all; love and charity toward all sentient beings are a dominant part of it.

754. Bodhisattva means the one who aspires to gain enlightenment but has postponed his own personal salvation in favor of a compassionate effort to save all sentient beings.

755. See for more details, Sourcebook of Korean Civilization, edited by Lee Peter H., Vol. I, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 385-386.

756. Han Woo-keun, The History of Korea, trans. by Lee Kyung-shik and ed. by Grafton K. Mintz, (Seoul: The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company, 1970), p. 210.

757. See ibid. for more details.

758. D.S. Macdonald, The Koreans, p. 99.

759. A. Charles Muller, "The History and Development of Korean Buddhism: A Brief Overview", footnote 24.

760. It is interesting to see here in what way both Wonhyo and Dooyeweerd were affected by their discovery of the centrality of the heart or mind even though the contexts are not the same. For Wonhyo the heart or mind is the center of human experience whereas Dooyeweerd thinks of it as the concentration point and religious root of our selfhood.

761. The project of translating Wonhyo's works into English is going on, cosponsored by the State University of New York at Stony Brook and the Dongguk University of Korea. All of his extant works have been contracted for translation by the end of 1999.

762. Hanguk pulgyo cheonseo [The Collected Writings of Korean Buddhism] 1, (Seoul: Dongguk University Press, 1986) p. 838a:8-11. English translation from Park Sung-bae, "Wonhyo's Commentaries on the Awakening of Mahayana Faith", unpublished manuscript, p. 26.

763. Wonhyo, Kumkang Sammae Kyungnon [Exposition of the Adamantine Absorption Scripture] in Hanguk pulgyo cheonseo 1, p. 604b:7-22. English translation from Sourcebook I, pp. 145-146.

764. The former upholds the truth of emptiness whereas the latter expounds that everything exists in consciousness only.

765. Wonhyo, Taesung kisillonso gihoebon [Commentary on the Awakening of Mahayana Faith] in Hanguk pulgyo cheonseo 1, p. 733c:9-14. English translation from Sourcebook I, p. 158.

766. Won Yi-beom and Lim Byeong-ho, A History of Korean Buddhist Culture and Some Essays, (Seoul: Jip Moon Dang, 1992), p. 23.

767. Meditation took place on a big rock alone or in a temple collectively. The object of meditation is to remove all the desires and so make the mind totally empty so that it can reach the world of enlightenment.

768. Chinul, Hwaomnon choryo [Excerps from the Exposition of the Flower Garland Scripture] in Hanguk pulgyo cheonseo 4, p. 768a:6-9. English translation from Keel Hee-sung, Chinul: The Founder of the Korean Son Tradition, (Berkeley: Buddhist Studies Series, 1984), p. 31.

769. Ibid., English translation from Sourcebook I, pp. 412-13

770. Chinul, Mokujasusimkyul [Secrets on Cultivating the Mind] in Hanguk pulgyo cheonseo 4, p. 709c-710a. English translation from Sourcebook I, pp. 418-19.

771. There is an element in Chinul's teaching that is worth comparing with the biblical view of salvation. The Christian view of salvation also has two aspects: on the one hand, we are saved by faith in God's Word-revelation, Jesus Christ (justification), while on the other hand we work out our salvation in fear and trembling through the work of the Holy Spirit whereby we are consecrated to God's service (sanctification). Whereas in the Buddhist view, there is no guarantee for salvation come what may, in the Christian view, sanctification is based upon the redemptive work accomplished by Christ and applied by the Holy Spirit who guarantees our salvation.

772. Recently, some Korean Buddhists have tried to prove the integration of Buddhism with modern science, discussing the relationship between Buddhism and ethics, pedagogy, logic, psychology, literature, mathematics, physics, social science and economy. But no mention has been made on the integration between Buddhism and natural science or history. See Kim Yong-jung, et al., Bulkyowa Hyundae Sasang [Buddhism and modern thought], (Seoul: Donghwa Publishing company, 1986).

773. Sourcebook 1, pp. 398-399.

774. Chung Byong-jo, "Korean Buddhism: Harmonizing the Contradictory", Koreana, Vol. II, p. 53.

775. The Korean Buddhist Research Institute, The History and Culture of Buddhism in Korea, (Seoul: Dongguk University Press, 1993), preface.

776. At that time, Son Buddhism had not yet been introduced to Korea. So Wonhyo and Uisang attempted to harmonize various theories within Mahayana Buddhism.

777. Robert E. Buswell. Jr., The Korean Approach to Zen: The Collected Works of Chinul (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1983), p. 2.

778. Muller, "The History and Development of Korean Buddhism", footnote 2. Furthermore, Muller asserts that a similar obsession can be seen in the so-called "Four-Seven Debate" of Korean Neo-Confucian scholars, quoting Michael Kalton's work, The Four-Seven Debate: An Annotated Translation (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994). We will discuss this Four-Seven debate in the following section.

779. Kim K.J., Christianity and the encounter of Asian religions, p. 75.

780. Muller, "The History and Development of Korean Buddhism", p. 6.

781. Chung To-jun, "Pulssi chappyon" [Arguments against Mr. Buddha] in Sambongjip [Collected writings of Chung To-jun], Yijo choyop myonghyon chipson [Collected writings of famous scholars in the early period of the Yi dynasty], (Seoul: Songgyungwan University, Taedong munwha yonguwon, 1959) pp. 21-37a.

782. Hanguk Pulkyo cheonseo 7, pp. 217-25. Cf. A. Charles Muller, "The Buddhist-Confucian Conflict in the Early Chosun and Kihwa's Syncretic Response: The Hyon chong non", an article presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion, Chicago, Nov. 20, 1994.

783. B. Walraven, "Koreaanse gedaanten van de boeddha [Korean habits of Buddha]", Culturen [Cultures], 2 (1988), nr. 1. (Amsterdam: Openbaar Kunstbezit [public possession of arts]), p. 27.

784. Robert E. Buswell, Jr., The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 23 and William E. Henthorn, A History of Korea, (New York: The Free Press, 1971), p. 116. For more information on the socioeconomic role of Buddhism in traditional Korea, see An Kyehyon, Hanguk Pulgyosa yongu [Researches on Korean Buddhist History] (Seoul: Tonghwa Chulpansa, 1986), pp. 289-94.

785. Han W.K., The History of Korea, p. 194.1

786. D.S. Macdonald, The Koreans, p. 100.

787. Han W.K., The History of Korea, p. 248. He is even compared to St. Thomas Aquinas in medieval Europe due to his synthetic interpretation of Confucian thought and pervasive influence in East Asia.

788. A Short History of Korea, compiled by the centre for east Asian cultural studies, (Tokyo: Kasai, 1964), pp. 59-61 and Henthorn, A History of Korea, p. 170. Traditionally, An Hyang (1243-1306) is credited with introducing Neo-Confucianism to Korea. See Sourcebook I, p. 448. Actually, there are many other kinds of Confucian thought such as the philosophies of Wang Yang-ming and Lu Hsiang-san. But these were labelled heretical and strictly prohibited. Some Korean scholars deplored this prejudice and partiality and studied Wang's philosophy but did not leave any significant results worth mentioning.

789. Actually, the I-Ki theory was first brought into being by Cheng I (1033-1107) and further developed by Chu Hsi. See, Bae Jong-ho, "The `Four-Seven' Controversy in Korean Confucianism" in Korean Thoughts, Chun, S.Y. General Editor. Korean Culture Series 10. (Seoul: International Cultural Foundation, 1979) p. 39.

790. This will be discussed later.

791. Jun H.J. Jonggyodawonjoouiwa Tajonggyo Sunkyojunryak, pp. 262-265.

792. Suh Kyung-duk, Hwadamchip 2:13d in Yijo choyop myonghyon chipson pp. 183-243.

793. Ibid., 2:14b-15a.

794. Im Song-ju, Nongmun sonsaeng chip [Collected writings of Im Song-ju], (Seoul: Kyongmunsa, 1976), 19:2b-6b. English translation from Sourcebook II, pp. 263-65.

795. Yi Hang-no, Hwaso sonsaeng munjip pu Aon [Collected writings of Yi Hang-no], (Seoul: Tongmunsa, 1974), 22:10b-12b. English translation from Sourcebook II, pp. 266-69.

796. Choe Han-gi, Chuchuknok [Writings of Conjecture] I:1a-2b in Kichukcheui. Kojun kugyok chongso [Collected Translation of Korean classics], (Seoul: Minjok munhwa chujinhoe, 1979-80), pp. 201-202. English translation from Sourcebook II, pp. 274-77.

797. Yi Chin-sang, Hanju chonso [Collected writings of Yi Chin-sang], (Seoul: Kyongin munhwasa, 1977), 32:1a-4b. English translation from Sourcebook II, pp. 271-74.

798. Sourcebook I, p. 613.

799. Yi Hwang, paragraph six of Sachil i-ki wangbokso [Four-seven i-ki correspondence letters] in Hanguk yuhak charyo chipsong [Collected writings of Korean Confucianism] I, ed. by Bae Jong-ho (Seoul: Yonsei University, 1980), pp. 238-240. English translation from Sourcebook I, p. 617. English translation of Mencius is from James Legge, The Chinese Classics. 5 vols. (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1966).

800. Ki Taesung, Response to the sixth paragraph of Sachil i-ki wangbokso in Hanguk yuhak charyo chipsong I, pp. 294. English translation from Sourcebook I, pp. 619-20.

801. Yi Hwang's response, Sachil i-ki wangbokso in Hanguk yuhak charyo chipsong. English translation from Sourcebook I, p. 628.

802. Yi I, "Letter to Song Hon" in Yulgok choenseo [Collected writings of Yulgok] 10 (Seoul: Songgyungwan University, Taedong munwha yonguwon, 1958) pp. 11a-18a. English translation from Sourcebook I, pp. 634-35.

803. Wm. Theodore de Bary & Ja Hyun Kim Haboush, ed. The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea, pp. 47-48.

804. Sourcebook I, p. 554.

805. See chapter 4, section 2. But the difference is that whereas the Korean Confucian basic motive of I and Ki was influential within the elite group alone resulting in complicated political friction and philosophical debates, Greek society was clearly divided between the free citizen embodying the culture-form ideal and the slaves and barbarians with the matter principle.

806. Han W.K. The History of Korea, p. 247.

807. Sourcebook II, p. 194.

808. Ibid., p. 211.

809. Ibid., pp. 207-8.

810. Later, the gradually rising critique of slavery finally had some effects on policy. By 1780 the slave population had dropped to under ten percent, and in 1801 King Sunjo (1800-34) manumitted almost all official slaves in government service. The abolition of hereditary slavery, however, did not occur until 1886, and the abolition of slavery itself only took place under the Kabo Reform cabinet of Kim Hong-jip in 1894, a cabinet put in place by the Japanese who dominated Korean politics during the prosecution of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95. See ibid., pp. 179-180.

811. Ibid., pp. 160-61.

812. S.J. Palmer, Korea and Christianity, pp. 77-78.

813. J. Grayson, Early Buddhism and Christianity in Korea, (Leiden: Brill, 1985), p. 103.

814. Van der Hoeven's term. See chapter 5, section 2.

815. D.S. Macdonald, The Koreans, pp. 101-102.

816. Min Kyung-bae, The History of the Korean Church, (Seoul: CLSK, 1978), pp. 134-180.

817. In 1919 Korean Christians paid a high price for their active participation in the March First independence demonstration. The ruins of the small Christian community of Cheam-ni, south of Seoul, bear mute testimony to the Japanese brutality of that time.

818. According to the national statistics taken in 1985, Korean Protestants number 6,489,282. The annual report of each denomination in 1989 showed that there were 34,407 churches and 10,312,873 believers. The ministers numbered 55,989. Recited from Kim K.J., Christianity and the encounter of Asian religions, p. 119.

819. See chapter 5, section 3. I do not see this term contradictory to Dooyeweerd's transcendental approach but rather complementary. See my evaluation of chapter 5 and the concluding remarks in section 6 of this chapter.

820. See chapter 5, section 5.

821. J. Grayson, Early Buddhism and Christianity in Korea, p. 113.

822. Ibid., p. 107.

823. Ibid., pp. 127-128.

824. These cases might be good examples of an inverse transformation, according to Klapwijk. See chapter 5, section 3.

825. Cf. Korean Thoughts, Chun Shin-yong, General Editor, Korean Culture Series 10, (Seoul, Korea: International Cultural Foundation, 1979), p. 11.

826. J. Grayson, Early Buddhism and Christianity in Korea, p. 139.

827. Ibid., pp. 138-139.

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