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Schwartz's universal values

In 1992, Shalom H Schwartz studied values across cultures, to find which seem universal. He found 56, listed in his Appendix VII. Here I have identified which aspects seem to me to make each meaningful. Most have two aspects, a main one and a secondary. In just a few, two aspects seem of equal importance, and with these I have just put them together. Where there is "(-)" after an aspect, then I think it is dysfunction in that aspect. For the meaningfulness of each of the aspects, see "".

Schwartz's universal values
Schwartz's value Main aspect(s) Other aspect(s)
1 -EQUALITY (equal opportunity for all) juridical analytic
2 -INNER HARMONY (at peace with myself) aesthetic pistic
3 SOCIAL POWER (control over others, dominance) formative social
4 -PLEASURE (gratification of desires) psychic ethical (-)
5 -FREEDOM (freedom of action and thought) formative pistic
6 -A SPIRITUAL LIFE (emphasis on spiritual not material matters) pistic
7 -SENSE OF BELONGING (feeling that others care about me) social pistic
8 -SOCIAL ORDER (stability of society) social juridical
9 -AN EXCITING LIFE (stimulating experiences) aesthetic kinematic
10 -MEANING IN LIFE (a purpose in life) pistic
11 -POLITENESS (courtesy, good manners) social ethical
12 -WEALTH (material possessions, money) economic
13 -NATIONAL SECURITY (protection of my nation from enemies) juridical ethical (-)
14 -SELF-RESPECT (belief in one's own worth) pistic social
15 -RECIPROCATION OF FAVORS (avoidance of indebtedness) juridical social
16 -CREATIVITY (uniqueness, imagination) formative aesthetic
17 -A WORLD AT PEACE (free of war and conflict) aesthetic juridical, formative
18 -RESPECT FOR TRADITION (preservation of time-honored customs) formative social
19 -MATURE LOVE (deep emotional and spiritual intimacy) ethical social
20 -SELF-DISCIPLINE (self-restraint, resistance to temptation) ethical economic
21 -DETACHMENT (from worldly concerns) analytic economic
22 -FAMILY SECURITY (safety for loved ones) juridical ethical, biotic
23 -SOCIAL RECOGNITION (respect, approval by others) social pistic
24 -UNITY WITH NATURE (fitting into nature) aesthetic biotic
25 -A VARIED LIFE (filled with challenge, novelty, and change) kinematic formative
26 -WISDOM (a mature understanding of life) aesthetic, analytic fprmative
27 -AUTHORITY (the right to lead or command) social formative
28 -TRUE FRIENDSHIP (close, supportive friends) social ethical
29 -A WORLD OF BEAUTY (beauty of nature and the arts) aesthetic
30 -SOCIAL JUSTICE (correcting injustice, care for the weak) juridical social
31 -INDEPENDENT (self-reliant, self-sufficient) pistic analytic
32 -MODERATE (avoiding extremes of feeling and action) aesthetic economic
33 -LOYAL (faithful to my friends, group) pistic
34 -AMBITIOUS (hardworking, aspiring) formative ethical (-)
35 -BROAD-MINDED (tolerant of different ideas and beliefs) ethical-pistic analytic
36 -HUMBLE (modest, self-effacing) ethical
37 -DARING (seeking adventure, risk) formative aesthetic
38 -PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT (preserving nature) juridical-ethical biotic
39 -INFLUENTIAL (having an impact on people and events) social formative
40 -HONORING OF PARENTS AND ELDERS (showing respect) social
41 -CHOOSING OWN GOALS (selecting own purposes) pistic formative
42 -HEALTHY (not being sick physically or mentally) biotic- psychical
43 -CAPABLE (competent, effective, efficient) formative economic
44 -ACCEPTING MY PORTION IN LIFE (submitting to life's circumstances) aesthetic-ethical pistic
45 -HONEST (genuine, sincere) juridical pistic
46 -PRESERVING MY PUBLIC IMAGE (protecting my "face") ethical (-) social
47 -OBEDIENT (dutiful, meeting obligations) juridical social
48 -INTELLIGENT (logical, thinking) analytical
49 -HELPFUL (working for the welfare of others) ethical
50 -ENJOYING LIFE (enjoying food, sex, leisure, etc.) aesthetic ethical (-)
51 -DEVOUT (holding to religious faith and belief) pistic
52 -RESPONSIBLE (dependable, reliable) juridical
53 -CURIOUS (interested in everything, exploring) analytic formative
54 -FORGIVING (willing to pardon others) ethical
55 -SUCCESSFUL (achieving goals) formative
56 -CLEAN (neat, tidy) aesthetic analytical


1. Missing aspects: It is interesting that lingual, to do with expression in language, is completely missing. This suggests that some lingually- meaningful values might be added to the list.

2. The ethical aspect, of self-giving love, is frequently mentioned. This is not surprising, since it is the aspect most associated with good (as opposed to juridical right and wrong), and hence values that transcend the individual.


Shalom H. Schwartz. 1992. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, (25).

See Also

This page, '', is part of a collection of pages that links to various thinkers, within The Dooyeweerd Pages, which explain, explore and discuss Dooyeweerd's interesting philosophy. Email questions or comments would be welcome.

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Copyright (c) at all dates below Andrew Basden. But you may use this material subject to conditions.

Created: 22 May 2020 Last updated: 11 June 2020 links to value.theory and ../normativity.