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With most things it is relatively easy to assign a qualifying aspect (an aspect in which the thing is most meaningful). But for some things this is less easy. This page collects some of these and discusses them. There seem to be three reasons for difficulty:

Here is a table of such things; more to be collected. The above reasons are 'Type' (M = multi-aspectual, S = submerged aspect, A = analogical).

Seemingly Non-Aspectual Activities or Things
The Thing Type Possible Single Aspect Reason for Difficulty
M There are many ways of knowing. But knowing is often wrongly assumed to be Analytic or theoretical.
Functioning M The word 'function' connotes acting towards some goal or achievement, which is of formative aspect, but in Dooyeweerd's use the word 'function' refers to activity that is response to aspectual law of any aspect.
M Perhaps originally impact is physical, but ... This is used to refer to the results of functioning in any aspect.
S Properties may be of any aspect. Our distinguishing of a property is analytic functioning. But the actual bearing of a property is not of any one aspect. The bearing of a property (of any aspect) is closely allied with functioning in that aspect.
Good / Bad M Good and bad are multi-aspectual, and each aspect offers a different way of being good or bad. See table of good and bad.
Quality M Quality is like 'good attribute', both of which are multi-aspectual. But perhaps it has shades of aesthetic?
Risk M Risk is mainly multi-aspectual, referring to the possibility of something bad. But perhaps it has formative connotations, because risk is usually meaningful insofar as it threatens to prevent us achieving something.
S Originally biotic because danger or threat to the organism (animal or human)? But now there can be almost any kind of danger or threat.
Safety (c.f. risk, danger) S Lots of kinds of safety, but currently mostly related to health (biotic, psychology (sensitive), finance (economic), convictions (juridical). Some would assign one aspect and argue that all the others are analogical references to this one, but I think that involves special pleading.
Being-afraid (e.g. of group member) Raw, animal fear is psychic, but 'being-afraid' of a member of a group, such that you 'tread on eggshells' with them, or take pains not to annoy them, is more. This could be social aspect, but it's more ... ... It is also a disharmony (aesthetic aspect), an injustice both ways (juridical) and perhaps even of the faith aspect in that we deeply assume the other to be a certain way. Mere social does not capture it. It seems to be like responding or knowing.
Adaptation A,M Perhaps adaptation was, in its original meaning, a biotic response to environment. But it is now used to refer to a functioning in any aspect in a way that recognises 'the other' - in this sense its main aspect might be mildly ethical in that we give something of ourselves in doing so. However the main use now is multi-aspectual. We adapt lingually when we go to another country or dialect area. We adapt socially by when we 'When in Rome, do as the Romans do'. And so on.
To imitate M To imitate someone could be psychic, analytic, formative, social, economic, aesthetic, juridical, pistic or any. Even animals can do it, but it seems to be more than psychic in humans. Imitation is rather like functioning as a general activity.

Trying to establish whether something is multi-aspectual or of a single aspect seems rather fruitless in most circumstances. I recommend merely recognising both possibilities, and consequently that in conversation with others (or even ourselves!) some misunderstanding might be possible.

This page, "", is part of The Dooyeweerd Pages, which explain, explore and discuss Dooyeweerd's interesting philosophy. Questions or comments are very welcome.

Compiled by Andrew Basden. You may use this material subject to conditions.

Written on the Amiga with Protext.

Created: 16 June 2009. Last updated: 10 July 2009 properties. 24 July 2009 imitate. 16 November 2009 being-afraid. 4 May 2010 risk, quality, good/bad, threat, some rewording. 3 February 2012 safety. 31 January 2018 corrected aesthetic link; new .end, .nav